Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Pregnant Women attending Institute of Venereology.

Krishnaveni, A (2008) Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Pregnant Women attending Institute of Venereology. Masters thesis, Madras Medical College, Chennai.


Download (241kB) | Preview


INTRODUCTION Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in women and children particularly in resource poor settings of developing world. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that around 340 million new cases of STIs occurs world wide. 50% of new cases of STIs occur in South East Asia. STIs most commonly affect people aged 15 to 44 years, the most economically productive age. Many STIs are asymptomatic or people are reluctant to seek health care due to stigma attached to it. Women of child bearing age are at particular risk of sequelae from STIs due to the impact of many STIs on their reproductive health. Burden of STIs is not only due to acute episode of the infections, but it has long term and severe sequelae like infertility, ectopic pregnancy and pelvic inflammatory diseases. Both ulcerative and non ulcerative STIs enhance the risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV infection by five to ten folds. `Infections in pregnancy are common but few cause fetal infection and damage, particularly urgent is the need to control fetal wastage and congenital abnormalities due to maternal sexually transmitted infections including HIV. Pregnancy is vulnerable time for women. Hence STIs in the pregnant women are more serious than in non pregnant women. Risk factors like multiple sex partners may independently affect pregnancy outcome. Adolescent sexual activity is increasing globally. With the change in social norms, peer pressure and media influences, teenagers are engaging in premarital sex earlier leading to unintended pregnancy and STIs. In general, sexually transmitted infections appears to pose a much greater problem in pregnant adolescents than in older pregnant women due to their monogamous relationship. Infections in young adult have their most serious consequences later in life. Adolescents have miscarriages more often and are partly attributable to STI. Teenage pregnancy remains common in many societies. The incidence of Medical termination of Pregnancy is particularly high among adolescents. Violence and sexual abuse by men is another aspect where women and girls are the most frequent victims. Pregnancy may also be a sign of ongoing sexual abuse. Meticulous examination should be performed looking carefully for STIs in those cases. Physiological changes, anatomical changes in the genital tract, immunological alteration in a pregnant woman have been postulated to influence the course of STIs which pose special risk of infection for both mother and fetus. Pregnancy modifies the manifestation of many STIs and presents unique problems for diagnosis and management. Antenatal attendees are a section of population routinely used as a reference point for STI prevalence in the general population of women. Thus routine screening and treatment of certain genital infections in high risk population eventually may lead to reduction in adverse pregnancy outcomes. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : 1. To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections including HIV among the pregnant women. 2. To study about the age distribution, socio economic status and Educational level of the pregnant women. 3. To study the prevalence of concomitant sexually transmitted infections among the pregnant women. CONCLUSION : * Vaginal discharge was more common than genital ulcer diseases. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (30%) was the commonest STI among the pregnant women, followed by Genital wart (20%), Bacterial vaginosis (20%) and syphilis(17.8%). * HIV infection was prevalent in 6 pregnant women (6.7%). * Hepatitis B was prevalent in 2 pregnant women (2.2%). * Around 88.8% of the pregnant women belong to the lower socio economic status i.e., less than Rs.2000/- per month. Nearly 76.7% of pregnant women belong to the age group of 16 - 25years. * Nearly 83.4% of the HIV infected pregnant women were affected with other sexually transmitted infections. Genital wart was the commonest viral infection among HIV infected pregnant women (33.3%). * Vulvovaginal candidiasis was coexisting with multiple STIs among pregnant women. Routine screening for sexually transmitted infections in all pregnant women should be included in the antenatal care. Effective treatment services should be made widely available for those who are found to be infected.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Prevalence ; Sexually Transmitted Infections ; Pregnant Women.
Subjects: MEDICAL > Dermatology Venereology and Leprosy
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 05 Jul 2017 02:40
Last Modified: 05 Jul 2017 08:31

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item