Micronucleus Assay in Urothelial Cells in Cancer Cervix

Suresh Kumar, S (2010) Micronucleus Assay in Urothelial Cells in Cancer Cervix. Masters thesis, Madras Medical College, Chennai.


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INTRODUCTION: Cancer, modern epidemics of non-communicable diseases is the second commonest cause of mortality in developed countries and remains one of the ten commonest causes of mortality in developing countries like India is a complex disease with altered expression, abnormal growth and disruption of normal function of cells caused by genotoxic effects resulting genomic instability at an early stage of cancer. To evaluate the genotoxic risks/ effects, observed as DNA damages, can be assessed by chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges and micronucleus test. Out of all these, micronucleus test is found to be the most sensitive when compared with other tests as it neither requires tedious procedures like cell culture and metaphase preparation, nor it requires any specific DNA stains. To further add, as it is applicable on interphase cell only, it is the best indicator of mitotic interference and chromosomal mutations or breakages and is noninvasive and economical too. Micronucleus, a microscopically visible round or oval cytoplasmic chromatin mass in the extra nuclear vicinity, originates from aberrant mitosis. It consists of eccentric chromosomes, chromatid fragments or whole chromosomes which failed to reach spindle poles during mitosis. Micronuclei have been used as biomarkers for assessment of DNA damages. Micronuclei provide a measure of both, chromosome breakage and chromosome loss. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1. To identify the occurrence of micronuclei in normal and cancer cervix. 2. To identify the occurrence of micronuclei in risk factors of cancer cervix. 3. To identify the occurrence of micronuclei in different stages of malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present descriptive study was undertaken in the patients attending the gynecology out patient department with complaints of leucorrhea, post-coital bleeding, lower abdominal pain, inter menstrual bleeding and prolongation of menstrual bleeding. Patients were grouped in the following 2 categories: 1. Patients whose Visual Inspection of Cervix is normal were taken as Group A. 2. Patients whose Visual Inspection of Cervix shows positive findings were taken as Group B. A Standard Performa was prepared in order to record the history, general examination and pelvic examination. After making the proper recordings in the respective Performa, urine sample were collected from the patients. After collection of the urine sample, the slides were prepared following the protocol given by Chakrabarti and Dutta et al (1988) for the MN assay. SUMMARY: 1. Maximum numbers with abnormal findings on Visual Inspection of Cervix [GROUP B] were in the age group of more than 50 years. 2. 20% of the cases in GROUP B got married before 18 years of age. 3. 72% of the cases in GROUP B had the history of more than 2 abortions. 4. 47% in GROUP B had more than three childbirth. 5. 72.9% of the cases were in the low socioeconomic status group. 6. 50 % of the GROUP cases who were in age group of 40 to 49 yrs and 38.7 % of the GROUP B cases who were more than 50 yrs had significant MN count was more than 50 years of age. 7. A statistically significant MN count was seen in the different stages of cancer cervix. 8. A linear association was noted between the mean MN count and cancer cervix stage. 9. 18.2% of the GROUP A cases had significant MN count. 10. 33.3 % of GROUP (normal findings in Visual Inspection of Cervix) cases who had significant MN count got married before 17 years of age. 11. 6.6% of the total cases were CSWs (commercial sex workers) among them one had erosion cervix and ASCUS on PAP smear. Two of them had significant MN count. 12. Sensitivity and Specificity of MN count in GROUP A was 83.8% and 82.6 % respectively. The Efficiency was 83.3%. CONCLUSION: 1. Early marriage, recurrent abortions, multiparity are associated with Cytologic changes in cancer cervix. 2. There are cases who had normal findings on Visual Inspection of Cervix but with significant MN count concludes that they are more prone for malignant transformation, needs further follow up. 3. MN assay is an easy, non invasive, cost effective method and hence to be used as a screening test for a large population.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Micronucleus Assay ; Urothelial Cells ; Cancer Cervix.
Subjects: MEDICAL > Medical Oncology
Depositing User: Kambaraman B
Date Deposited: 09 May 2018 17:11
Last Modified: 09 May 2018 17:11
URI: http://repository-tnmgrmu.ac.in/id/eprint/7682

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