Effectiveness of nutritional intervention package on knowledge and level of anemia among adolescent girls at selected settings West Bengal

Hephzibah Dorothy, J (2014) Effectiveness of nutritional intervention package on knowledge and level of anemia among adolescent girls at selected settings West Bengal. Masters thesis, Omayal Achi College of Nursing, Chennai.

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Adolescents are the greatest asset of any country. “Adolescence” origins from a Latin word “adolescere” which means “to grow up”. Adolescence represents a critical stage of transition from childhood to adulthood. In these formative years of life, there is an abrupt and greater increase in the growth and development in various dimensions makes the adolescent girls vulnerable to various health problems. One of the major problems among adolescent girls is anemia. The iron requirement increases dramatically due to the expansion of the lean body mass, total blood volume and the onset of menstruation. This demand is further challenged by reduced dietary intake, decreased absorption, the strenuous physical work, gender disparity, lack of proper education, early marriage. Irrespective of the background, majority of the adolescent girls in India, are highly ignorant about anemia, its significant health consequences and the effects of anemia in their offspring. This further augments the vulnerability of adolescent girls to develop anemia. Anemia not only has lasting negative consequences in the adolescent girls’ growth, development, survival but also on the overall health of the children they give birth, later in life. The prevention of anemia, among adolescent girls should aim to improve their overall physical, cognitive and social dimensions of health and improved pregnancy outcomes to result in decreased incidence of pregnancy loss, neonatal mortality rate, infant mortality rate, low birth weight babies, through integrated approaches. There is a wide variety of health programmes have been commenced and being carried out at national and international level including iron and folic acid supplementation, dietary modification , dietary diversification and dietary fortification. It is essential to create awareness at the grass root level through education on adolescent health, disseminating knowledge on iron rich foods and dietary modifications with dietary diversification. Though it is a challenging task to modify the dietary behavior of adolescent girls who are in their impressionable period of life, it is possible to influence their behavior through adequate education, reinforcement on locally available dietary resources that are rich in iron, healthy cooking practices, and introduction to cheap iron fortified foods. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of nutritional intervention package on knowledge and level of anemia among adolescent girls. Null Hypothesis of the study NH1 There is no significant difference in the pre test and post test level of knowledge and level of anemia between experimental and control group. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: The research design adopted for this study was quasi experimental, non equivalent control group design. The independent variable used in this study was Nutritional intervention package and the dependent variables used for this study were level of knowledge on anemia and level of hemoglobin of the adolescent girls with anemia. The study was conducted at Kachkumrakali and Anderia of Taldi Panchayat of south 24 paragnas district, West Bengal. The total adolescent girls in the age group of 13-19 years were 150 and 125 in Kachkumrakali and in Anderia respectively. The samples were the adolescent girls with mild, moderate and severe anemia who fulfilled the sample selection criteria. Non probability purposive sampling technique was used in selecting the samples for this study. The intervention package prepared by the investigator was nutritional intervention package that consisted of education on management of anemia and nutritional supplement. The level of knowledge was assessed by structured knowledge questionnaire, hemoglobin measurement using clinical assessment based on modified WHO palmar pallor guidelines and photo electric colorimeter by cyanmethemoglobin method. Analysis of data was done using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of nutritional intervention package on knowledge and level of anemia among adolescent girls. The analysis on the post-test revealed that the majority 24(80%) of the adolescents in the experimental group had moderately adequate knowledge while 4(13.33%) had adequate knowledge and 2(6.06%) had inadequate knowledge. In the control group all of them had inadequate knowledge. The pretest mean score for knowledge was 8.37 with S.D 1.83 and the post- test mean score was 16.37 with S.D 2.20. The calculated‘t’ value was t = 20.087 which was found to be statistically highly significant at p<0.001 level in the experimental group. With regard to the hemoglobin level among adolescent girls in the experimental group, in the pre-test none of them had normal hemoglobin, 15(50%) had mild anemia, 12(40%) had moderate anemia and 3(10%) had severe anemia. whereas in the post-test majority 22(70%) had only mild anemia whereas, 8(26.67%) had moderate anemia and 1(3.03%) adolescent girls had normal hemoglobin none of them had severe anemia. The pretest mean score for level of anemia was 9.47 with S.D 1.47 and the posttest mean score was 10.66 with S.D 1.19. The calculated ‘t’ value was t = 10.500 which was statistically highly significant at p < 0.001 level. The analysis of pretest and post- test hemoglobin level among adolescent girls in the control group, showed that, in the pre-test and in post-test none of them had normal hemoglobin. In the pretest alone 15(50%) had mild anemia and 14(46.67%) had moderate anemia, 1(3.33%) had severe anemia. Similarly in the post-test 13(43.33%) adolescent girls had mild anemia, 16(53.33%) had moderate anemia and 1(3.03%) had severe anemia. There was a significant improvement in the knowledge and level of hemoglobin after the administration of nutritional intervention package. The nutritional supplement and information on anemia was an effective interventional tool in improving the knowledge and level of anemia among adolescent girls with anemia. CONCLUSION: The present study assessed the effectiveness of nutritional intervention package on knowledge and level of anemia among adolescent girls. The findings of the study revealed that there is significant improvement in the knowledge and level of anemia among adolescent girls, who received the intervention. Hence the nutritional intervention package can be utilized to prevent and treat anemia.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: nutritional intervention package ; level of knowledge ; anemia ; adolescent girls.
Subjects: NURSING > Paediatric Nursing
Depositing User: Kambaraman B
Date Deposited: 13 Sep 2018 09:20
Last Modified: 13 Sep 2018 09:20
URI: http://repository-tnmgrmu.ac.in/id/eprint/7301

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