Standardization of Trichotillometer

Shanmuga Sundaram, V (2009) Standardization of Trichotillometer. Diploma thesis, PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Coimbatore.


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INTRODUCTION : Hair is a defining characteristic of mammals. Hair originally evolved in the mammals as a protective coat. However, it has lost its functional value in humans except in the regions of the scalp where it is thick and coarse. Elsewhere in the body, it is fine and delicate. The human skin has approximately five million follicles of which only one hundred thousand are on the scalp. Hair loss is a common problem. That may affect both male and female in all age group. Hair disorders are difficult to treat, example-alopecia. Alopecia can be classified as scaring and non-scarring. The main cause of scaring alopecia are DLE, SLE, LP, for non-scarring alopecia are androgenetic alopecia, diffuse alopecia, alopecia areata. Among these androgenetic alopecia are most frequently occurring problem. Hair loss can be result from due to systemic and local condition. Diffuse hair loss can further be classified by the type of hair that are shed whether they are anagen or telogen. Diagnosis and treatment of these disorders are becoming increasingly important. A detailed history, complete physical examination and relevant lab investigation are indicated to come to the conclusion. Morphologically hair can be divided into four major categories; straight, spiral, helical, and wavy. The fetus is covered by soft, fine, highly pigmented hair called languo hair. The fine hair that covers most of the body of adult are termed vellus hair. Long, coarse, pigmented hair is called terminal hair. During ones life time a particular hair follicle may produce different type of hair. A hair follicle in the scalp may initially produce a lanugo hair, later a terminal hair and finally a vellus hair. There are different types of terminal hair. They are Anagen (growing hair) phase, catagen (involuting hair) phase, and telogen (resting hair) phase. There are various tests available to investigate the hair loss. They are hair pull test, hair pluck test (trichogram), phototrichogram, digital phototrichogram, unit area trichogram, hair diameter assessment and trichotillometer. Trichotillometer was first designed and constructed by C L Krumdieck in 1981, to measure the force in grams necessary to epilate individual hairs. Trichotillometer is not available commercially. We used Instron universal Tensile Strength Tester 6021 (Instron limited, U K) as trichotillometer. It is a very sensitive machine, used in textile department to test the tensile strength of fibers. Trichotillometer is used in various studies to measure the amount of force required to pluck the hair in protein energy malnutrition. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To measure the diameter of hair and to determine the force required to pluck the anagen and telogen hair. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The Study was carried out from Oct 2007 to March 2008 in the department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, PSG Hospitals, Coimbatore in collaboration with SITRA (South Indian Textile Research Association). Ten healthy volunteers (5 males and 5 females) were selected and included in the study. The volunteers were subjected to test by using Instron Universal Tensile Strength Tester and the hair was plucked from four regions of the scalp (frontal, vertex, occipital and parietal) and the force required to pluck the hair was recorded. The plucked hair was examined under microscope to determine whether the hair was in anagen or telogen phases. The diameter of each hair was measured using image analyzer. Data were analyzed using SPSS PC (11.5version). Mean and standard deviation (SD) were calculated. Z test was done to test the statistical significance. Examination of hair was carried out at standard time (atleast 3 days) after the last washing of the hair. Inclusion criteria : Volunteer who was not on any medication. Not suffering from chronic disease. Exclusion criteria : Those who are on medications. Individuals with diffuse hair loss. Trichotillometry: Trichotillometer is a hand held spring dynamometer designed and constructed to specifically measure the force in grams necessary to epilate individual hair,21 this instrument is not commercially available, so we used Instron Universal Tensile Strength Tester. Which is very sensitive machine used in textile physics to determine the tensile characteristics of textile materials. Then the plucked hair was examined under microscope to determine whether the hair anagen or telogen phase. Hair diameter assessment : The plucked hair was mounted and marked at 1 cm above the hair root and examined using image analyzer with 200 X magnification (video camera module) and the hair diameter was calculated and recorded. RESULTS : 10 healthy volunteers, 5 males and 5 females were selected and subjected to the test. The hair was plucked from four regions of scalp (frontal, vertex, occipital and parietal) using Instron universal tensile strength tester and the plucked hair was examined under microscope to determine whether the hair was in anagen or telogen phase. Subsequently hair diameter was calculated by using image analyzer. Total number of volunteers – 10, Male volunteer – 05, Female volunteer – 05, Total number of hair examined- 400. The force required to pluck the each hair is shown in the master chart. CONCLUSION : This study was conducted to determine and compare the force required to pluck the anagen and the telogen hair. Trichogram is commonly done procedure to calculate the percentage and ratio of anagen hair and telogen hair. The hair can be differentiated by simple microscopic examination as discussed earlier. This procedure is time taking and does not give information regarding the force required to pluck the hair. The present study measures the force required to pluck the anagen hair and telogen hair. Trichotillometery can be used calculate or assess the force required to pluck the hair in individuals or in patients with alopecia. Trichotillometery can be subsequently done to find whether the treatment is effective in increasing the growth of hair, prolonging anagen phase and increasing the number of anagen hair. The equipment used was large and expensive. However a smaller and portable one is being fabricated for rapid use in outpatient department.

Item Type: Thesis (Diploma)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Trichotillometer ; Standardization.
Subjects: MEDICAL > Dermatology Venereology and Leprosy
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 02 Mar 2018 16:27
Last Modified: 03 Mar 2018 06:08

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