Application of Geographic Information System in the study of leptospiral uveitis

Fathima, A (2008) Application of Geographic Information System in the study of leptospiral uveitis. Masters thesis, Aravind Eye Hospital and Postgraduate Institute of Ophthalmology, Madurai.

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis ,a zoonosis, caused by spirochete,that belongs to genus leptospira.Uveitis is an important late complication of systemic illness.It is a water - borne disease. It has a specific pattern for spread, can occur as epidemic or endemic. Leptospirosis is worldwide distributed; more common in tropical rural countries. India is a tropical country and with majority of agricultural and rural population. Hence, leptospirosis is widely spread in India. Several major epidemic out breaks have been reported in India. The southern Indian city, Madurai and Its surrounding agricultural land is a known endemic place for Leptospirosis. To learn the epidemiological pattern of the Leptospiral uveitis in a hospital based population of this district, Geographic Information System is used as a tool in this study. In this study, we have applied GIS in mapping and analyzing the pattern of leptospiral uveitis in Madurai district in the period of 2001- 2005. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM: BASICS OF GIS: GIS is a computer system designed for capturing, storing, integrating, analyzing and displaying data from a geographic perspective The term "Geographic Information Systems" (GIS) has been added to mesh in 2003, a step reflecting the importance and growing use of GIS in health and healthcare research and practices. GIS have much more to offer than the obvious digital cartography (map) functions. From a community health perspective, GIS could potentially act as powerful evidence-based practice tools for early problem detection and solving2 “A new wave of technological innovation is allowing us to capture, store, process and display an unprecedented amount of information about our planet and a wide variety of environmental and cultural phenomena. Much of this information will be 'geo-referenced' – that is, it will refer to some specific place on the Earth's surface. The hard part of taking advantage of this flood of geospatial information will be making sense of it, turning raw data into understandable information. Former American Vice President Al Gore. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To study the epidemiological correlates of leptospiral uveitis in a hospital based population belonging to Madurai district Inclusion criteria Patients with leptospiral uveitis belonging to Madurai district who attended uvea dept, Aravind eye hospital, Madurai in the 5 yr period from January 2001 – December 2005. Exclusion Criteria 1) Patients with a history of recent migration outside Madurai district during the acquisition of leptospirosis. 2) Patients initially considered to have leptospirosis in differential diagnosis and later diagnosed to have some other specific disease based on the investigation and clinical behaviour of the disease. ANALYSIS USING GIS: Distribution of leptospiral uveitis patients in each taluk of Madurai district was analyzed using GIS.Out of 145 cases,135 cases are taken for GIS analysis,since the address of these 10 cases are incomplete and the exact location of taluk they belong to could not be made out. Madurai district is divided into following seven taluks. Madurai corporation is included in Madurai south taluk.The following are the name of the taluks(Map 1): 1. Madurai North 2. Madurai South 3. Melur 4. Vadipatti 5. Peraiyur 6. Thirumangalam 7. Usilampatti DISCUSSION: Descriptive study is usually the first phase of an epidemiological investigation. This study is concerned with observing the distribution of the disease or disease related characteristics in human population and to identify any associated characteristics. This study describes the disease of interest-Leptospiral uveitis in following headings: •Person distribution –Age, Gender, literacy, Occupation, Socio-economic status. •Place distribution-Taluk-wise, village wise distribution, Comparison with water bodies and animal distribution. •Time distribution—comparison with year- wise rainfall distribution. CONCLUSION: Though Madurai district as a whole is an endemic area for leptospirosis, variations in density distribution of patients among different taluks of Madurai have been observed in this study. It concludes that leptospiral uveitis occurs more common in rural and agricultural population and in places with more ratio of animal to human population. It occurs less frequently in places where Urban and literate population predominate. Map patterns using GIS being physically compact highlight these correlations and provide an added dimension to this study. GIS is a useful decision support tool for analyzing multiple themes simultaneously and in locating the places of need. Based on the results of this study, health education and preventive measures could be focused on the needy places. This study could be extended for analyzing the occurrence of systemic leptospirosis or similar other waterborne illness.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: leptospiral uveitis; Geographic Information System; GIS
Subjects: MEDICAL > Ophthalmology
Depositing User: Devi S
Date Deposited: 19 Feb 2018 07:12
Last Modified: 19 Feb 2018 07:12
URI: http://repository-tnmgrmu.ac.in/id/eprint/5864

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