Relationship between caries status (caries and caries free group), salivary flow rate, buffering capacity, salivary mutans streptococcus count and sugar intake among 3-5 year old preschool children

Uma Maheswari, N (2007) Relationship between caries status (caries and caries free group), salivary flow rate, buffering capacity, salivary mutans streptococcus count and sugar intake among 3-5 year old preschool children. Masters thesis, Ragas Dental College and Hospital, Chennai.

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION : In a period marked by brilliant achievements in the prevention and treatment of disease, dental caries still remains one of the most widespread affliction in modern man. Dental caries is a slowly progressing disease that manifests as a result of mineral imbalance between the tooth and the environment. It is something of a paradox that teeth can be destroyed relatively rapidly in vivo and are almost indestructible postmortem. While it is true that diseases of teeth do not normally kill humans, they certainly affect the person’s efficiency and they can, if neglected, provoke serious conditions elsewhere in the body. Their contribution to the general fund of human misery is legendary. The disease progression can be stopped if the factors responsible are nullified in the initial stage. It is thus important to identify high caries risk markers as well as individuals to implement preventive and interceptive procedures. Dental caries is a multifactorial disease in which there is interplay of three principle factors; the host (primarily the saliva and teeth), the microflora, and the substrate or diet. In evaluating the caries risk of a patient a number of factors must be taken into consideration. Salivary counts of mutants streptococcus combined with the measurement of salivary flow rate and buffer effect and sugar consumption are frequently used for diagnostic and predictive purpose in cariology. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : 1. To study the relation between caries status, salivary flow rate, salivary buffering capacity, mutans streptococcus count, and sugar intake among 3-5 year old pre school children. 2. To correlate the frequency of sugar intake with caries experience of the individual. 3. To determine the relation between salivary flow rate and salivary buffering capacity with caries experience. 4. To compare the levels of s.mutans with the caries experience of the individual. 5. To evaluate the relationship, if any between microbial parameter and sugar index. 6. To evaluate the relationship, if any between microbial parameter and salivary parameters. 7. To identify the caries risk group and to implement preventive strategies on the primary dentition so as to prevent the transmission of an infection from the primary to permanent dentition, subsequently interfering with or delaying the occurrence of decay. MATERIALS & METHODOLOGY : The present study comprised of 100 healthy children in the age group of 3-5 years from local nursery schools in Chennai. All children were in the primary dentition stage. A proforma was prepared to record the data. Children with the history of antibiotic consumption within last 3 months or were receiving any other antimicrobial agents concurrent with this study period, fluoride use or living in fluoridated area, any prior dental treatment were not included in the study. This was possible to study the natural occurrence of dental decay that was unclouded by the effects of treatment and preventive measures 7. MATERIALS : Materials used for the study were given below. Interview : Questionnaires in English. Oral examination : 1. Hand gloves. 2. Mouth mask. 3. Mouth mirror. 4. Explorer or Ash’s number 54 probe. 5. 2x2 gauze piece. Biochemical study 1. Sugarless chewing gums. 2. Sterile disposable saliva collecting cups. 3. Pipette. 4. Stop watch. 5. pH indicator paper strips with colour coded chart. Microbiological study : 1. Inoculating loops. 2. Pipette. 3. Conical flasks. 4. Sterilizer. 5. Distilled water. 6. Sterile Petri dish. 7. Refrigerator. 8. Incubator. 9. Candle jar. 10. Hand magnifying lens. 11. Microscope. 12. Microscopic glass slide. Chemicals and solutions : 1. Mitis salivarius bacitracin agar medium. 2. Saline. 3. Gention violet 4. Gram’s iodine. 5. Absolute alcohol. 6. Dilute carbon fusion 7. Sorbitol. 8. Mannitol. 9. Starch. RESULTS : The present study was carried out to evaluate the relation between caries experience and sugar intake, salivary flow rate, salivary buffering capacity, salivary mutans streptococcus count and the possible inter relationship between these variables in 50 caries and 50 caries free, 3 – 5 years old preschool children. CONCLUSION : The present study was undertaken in the local nursery schools of Chennai among 3 – 5 year old preschool children to evaluate the sugar intake, the microbial and nonmicrobial parameters and its relation with the caries experience and if any interrelationship between these variables. The following conclusion were drawn from the study: 1. There was a highly significant relation between frequency of sugar consumption and caries experience. (P < 0.001) 2. There was a inverse relation between salivary parameters (salivary flow rate, buffering capacity) and the caries experience. (P < 0.001) 3. There was a direct relation between microbial parameter (salivary mutans streptococcus count) and the caries experience. (P < 0.001) 4. There was a strong relation between salivary parameters (salivary flow rate, buffering capacity) and the streptococcus mutans count. (P < 0.001) 5. There was a weak relation between frequency of sugar consumption and the streptococcus mutans count. (P = 0.07) 6. There was a direct relation between salivary flow rate and salivary buffering capacity. (P < 0.001) The need to search for risk indicators for dental caries in order to target risk groups has been one of the subjects of a recent conference on the assessment of risk group in dentistry. These parameters evaluated in the current study could be used to discriminate highly infected subjects from non infected subjects and therefore may be indicators of an increased or reduced risk for dental decay. After an initial diagnosis of risk indicators, the high risk groups are identified and therapy should be directed to preventive strategies such as the use of fluorides, sealants and other antimicrobial supplements. Further research is needed to identify the other possible risk indicators and its relation with the caries experience.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: caries status, caries, caries free group, salivary flow rate, buffering capacity, salivary mutans streptococcus count, sugar intake, 3-5 year old preschool children.
Subjects: DENTAL > Paedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
Depositing User: Kambaraman B
Date Deposited: 22 Jan 2018 11:48
Last Modified: 22 Jan 2018 11:48
URI: http://repository-tnmgrmu.ac.in/id/eprint/5520

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