Histo Pathological Analysis of Central Nervous System Neoplasms with Immunohistochemical Correlation.

Velayutham, Sumathi (2010) Histo Pathological Analysis of Central Nervous System Neoplasms with Immunohistochemical Correlation. Masters thesis, Thanjavur Medical College, Thanjavur.

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Abstract

The Central Nervous System [CNS] Is Made Up Of The Brain And The Spinal Cord. Cells Within The CNS Normally Grow In An Orderly And Controlled Way. If For Some Reason This Disorder Is Disrupted The Cells Continue To Divide And Form A Lump Of Tumor. Primary Brain Tumors Continue To Be Among The Top Ten Causes Of Cancer Related Deaths In The World, Despite Comparatively Low Incidence To Other Tumors. Approximately 14/1,00,000 People Are Diagnosed With Primary Brain Tumors Each Year And 7/1,00,000 Are Diagnosed With Primary Malignant Brain Tumors. About Half To Three Quarters Are Primary Tumors, Rest Are Metastatic. Tumors Of CNS Account Of 20% Of All Cancers Of Childhood. The Incidence Of Brain Tumors Is 2-5 New Cases Per 1,00,000 Per Year. 70% Of Childhood Tumors Arise In Posterior Fossa, A Comparable Number Of Tumors In Adults Arise Within Cerebral Hemispheres Above The Tentorium. CNS Brain Tumors Is About Equal In Males And Females – 51% For Females And 49% For Males (CBTRUS STUDY). The Incidence Of Malignant CNS Tumors Is Greater In Males I.E. 7.2/1,00,000. Brain Tumor Incidence Tends To Be Higher In Countries With More Developed Medical Care. Research Into The Causes Of Brain Tumors Is Mired By Many Factors, Including The Relative Rarity Of The Disease And Rapid Death Of Patients With Aggressive Subtypes. Investigators Have Initiated Studies Of Genetic Polymorphisms That When Coupled With Certain Environmental Exposures May Lead To Brain Tumors. The Possible Risk Of Developing Brain Cancer From Exposure To Electromagnetic Fields Through Power Lines Has Been Investigated. To Date, Studies Do Not Support Any Such Relationship. Another Area Of Popular Concern Is The Possible Association Between Head Trauma And Brain Tumor Development. Central Nervous System Tumors Have Unique Characteristics That Set Them Apart From Neoplastic Processes Elsewhere In The Body. 1. Distinction Between Benign And Malignant Neoplasm Is Less Evident In CNS Than In Other Organs. 2. The Ability To Resect Infiltrating Glial Neoplasms Surgically Without Compromising Neurologic Function Is Limited 3. Anatomic Site Of Neoplasm Can Have Lethal Consequence Irrespective Of Histologic Classification. 4. Pattern Of Spread Of Primary CNS Neoplasms Differ From That Of Other Tumors, Even The Most Highly Malignant Gliomas Rarely Metastasise Outside The CNS. Glial Tumors Are The Most Common Primary Brain Tumors. They Are Derived From Astrocytes, Oligodendroglial Cells And Ependyma. Metastatic Tumors Are By Far The Commonest Group Of Malignancies Encountered Within Nervous System. Bronchus, Breast And Bowel Are The Most Common Primary Sites But Metastases Can Develop From Almost Anywhere. Recently There Has Been Conjecture That Primary Brain Tumor Incidence Is Increasing. Analysis Of The Speculation Is Complicated By Diagnostic Discrepancies And Ascertainment Bias In Registry Data. However After Extensive Review This Apparent Rise Is Most Likely Caused By Factors Such As Better Diagnostic Procedures, Improved Access To Medical Care And Enhanced Care For The Elderly – All Leading To Greater Detection Rather Than An Actual Increase In Incidence. Sometimes CNS Tumors Are Very Difficult To Diagnose Under Light Microscopic Examination. Immunohistochemical Stains Play An Immense Role In Differentiating These Tumors. In This Prosepective Study Of CNS Tumors, Incidence With Respect To Age, Sex, Site And Histomorphological Features Of Various Tumors Are Studied With An Immunohistochemical Correlation For Some Tumors Where Light Microscopic Examination Was Difficult. The Recent Literature Regarding CNS Tumors Are Also Reviewed And Correlated.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: HistoPathological Analysis ; Central Nervous System ; Neoplasms ; Immunohistochemical Correlation.
Subjects: MEDICAL > Pathology
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 29 Jun 2017 01:25
Last Modified: 29 Jun 2017 01:25
URI: http://repository-tnmgrmu.ac.in/id/eprint/529

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