A Clinical and Histomorphological Analysis of Paediatric Malignant Neoplasms.

Revathi, R (2007) A Clinical and Histomorphological Analysis of Paediatric Malignant Neoplasms. Masters thesis, Thanjavur Medical College, Thanjavur.


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Paediatric Cancers Differ Markedly From Adult Malignancies In Their Distribution By Histology, Tumour Site And In Prognosis. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Brain Cancers, Lymphomas And Sarcomas Of Soft Tissue And Bone Predominant In Children And Adolescence.3,8,72,73 Unlike Incidence Pattern In Adults Where Cancer Rates Tend To Rapidly Increase With Increasing Age, Relatively Wide Age Variability Exists During Development, With Two Peaks In Early Childhood And In Adolescence.16,17,19. During The First Year Of Life Embryonal Tumour Such As Neuroblastoma, Nephroblastoma, Retinoblastoma, Medulloblastoma, Rhabdomyosarcoma, Are Most Common.3,8,18,19,46,47 These Embryonal Tumours Combine With Acute Leukemia, NHL And Gliomas Which Together Peaks In Incidence From 2 To 5yrs Of Age, For The Highest Cancer Incidence During Childhood And Adolescence Other Than In Infancy. It Appears That Adolescence Is A Transitional Period Between The Common Early Childhood Malignancies And Characteristic Carcinomas Of Adulthood. The Mortality Rate Of Cancer In Children Is Approximately 3 To 5 Deaths / 1 Lakh Population / Year. A Number Of Genetic Conditions Associated With Elevated Risk Of Childhood Cancers Such As DOWNS SYNDROME, NF I And II, BECKWITH WEIDEMANN SYNDROME, TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS And LI FRAUMENI SYNDROME. The Risk Factors For The Major Paediatric Cancer Includes Ionizing Radiation, Non-Ionizing Power Frequency Electromagnetic Field, Pesticides, Parental Occupational Chemical Exposures, Dietary Factors And Environmental Cigarette Smoke. The Role Of Viruses Such As Polioma Viruses, EBV & HTLV In Etiologic Importance Is Unclear. In This Study The Paediatric Cancers Are Broadly Classified Under 3 Major Groups I.E., Soft Tissue And Bone Sarcomas, Haematalogical And Lymphoreticular Malignancies And CNS Neoplasms. Most Authors And Research Workers Agreed To Follow This System In Evaluating The Incidence, Prevalence, Risk Factors And Management Of Pediatric Cancers. In General, There Is Diversity In The Occurrence Of Paediatric Neoplasm All Over The World. In This Study, The Actual Incidence And Presentation Of Paediatric Neoplasm In Semi Urban Area Is Evaluated With Painful Attention To Clinical Features, Role Of Environmental Factors, Consanguinity And Initial Cytomorphological Evaluation With Fine Needle Aspiration In Proportion Of Cases. As Paediatric Neoplasm Are Often Anaplastic Cancers, They Pose A Challenge To Surgical Pathologist. Paediatric Oncology Face Unique Challenges Because Treatment With Radiation, Surgery And Chemotherapy May Adversely Affects Growth And Development And May Cause Serious Long Term Medical And Psychosocial Effect.54,59,65 Molecular Cytogenetics, Immunohistochemistry And Histochemical Stains Play A Major Role In Determining The Exact Underlying Pathology Of Various Paediatric Cancers. This Study Is Undertaken In View Of Evaluating The Actual Incidence Of Paediatrics Neoplasms In Semi Urban Area Like Thanjavur With Particular Attention To The Age, Sex, Site And Histopathology Of Cancers. In Addition, The Recent Literatures, Journals And Research Publications Regarding Paediatric Cancers Are Also Immensely Reviewed.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Clinical ; Histomorphological Analysis ; Paediatric; Malignant Neoplasms.
Subjects: MEDICAL > Pathology
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 28 Jun 2017 08:16
Last Modified: 28 Jun 2017 08:16
URI: http://repository-tnmgrmu.ac.in/id/eprint/517

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