Comparison of Physical and Chemical Properties of Five Different Alloplastic Bone Graft Materials

Mintu, M Kumar (2013) Comparison of Physical and Chemical Properties of Five Different Alloplastic Bone Graft Materials. Masters thesis, Sree Mookambika Institute of Dental Sciences, Kulasekharam.

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Abstract

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The present study aims at analysing physicochemical characteristics of 5 different types of alloplastic graft materials used in periodontal regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The materials used were:- Monophasic Hydroxyapatite – Biograft HA, Tricalcium Phosphate – Biograft TCP, Biphasic Hydroxyapatite – Biograft HT, Bioactive Glass – Perioglas and a combination of Hydroxyapatite and Bioactive Glass – Biograft HABG Active. MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION: The physicochemical properties of the biomaterials were tested using the following methods: 1. Scanning Electron Microscopy [SEM] - assess the sample`s surface topography & size 2. Thermogravimetry - reflect divergent physical properties and chemical compositions among the specimens resulting from their diverse thermal histories. 3. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy [FTIR] - to provide information concerning the chemical composition and the major functional groups. 4. X ray diffractometry [XRD] - used to identify phase and composition features and qualitatively evaluate the crystallinity of the materials 5. Dissolution rates - used to evaluate the solubility rate of calcium and silica RESULTS: From the particle size related data it is seen that PG and HA show smaller particles (100 – 300 μm) while TCP, HT and HABG show larger particles (200 – 500 μm). In the present study Biograft HA, Biograft TCP and Biograft HABG showed rough and irregular surface, while Perioglas and Biograft HT showed a smooth surface. The surface of perioglas is said to be smooth with less roughness, Biograft HT shows smooth and sintered surface particles with nano pores visible. All the other materials show rough surface with the presence of micro and nano sized pores ranging from 0.5 – 1 μm. Thermogravimetric analysis is used to determine the content of water, organic material (like collagen) and mineral (CaP). For all of the alloplasts in our study only a minimal weight loss upto 2 % was seen which can be attributed to the presence of moisture or due to oxidation of the samples. As all the test materials were synthetic or alloplastic, there was the absence of lattice water or organic content. All the tested materials were stable upto 10000 C, which renders all test materials to be thermally stable and phase pure and without any impurities. Infra red analysis shows the presence of main functional groups such as phosphates and carbonates. The calcium phosphate class of materials (HA, TCP and HT) and HABG showed almost similar stretching and vibration patterns for both functional groups. Phosphate peak was broad in Perioglas which may be due to the amorphous nature of material. In the Infrared spectra data from the 5 tested materials, hydroxyl peaks had highest intensity in HA, with midway values in HT and almost nil in TCP. HABG does not show a peak corresponding to OH group and PG shows a broadened peak. X ray diffraction patterns of the 5 alloplastic materials indicate their chemical composition (presence of crystalline phases) and lattice parameter information. The XRD peaks of the samples were well defined. Among the 5 alloplastic materials HA, HABG, TCP and HT showed typical crystalline structure whereas PG showed broad peaks indicating the amorphous nature of the material. An increasing order of crystallinity was obtained from XRD data as PG, HABG, TCP, HT and HA. In the dissolution tests done for calcium, all the materials showed positive results. Bioactive glass class of grafts (PG and HABG) had more dissolution when compared to hydroxyapatite class (HA,TCP and HT). The second dissolution test was done for silica, the bioactive glass group of material (PG and HABG) which are silica based were tested. Both PG and HABG showed increased dissolution of silica upto 24 hours, with PG showing constant values and HABG showing decreasing rates after 24 hours. SUMMARY: The main objective of present work was the physicochemical characterization of 5 commercial sample of alloplasts used for bone grafting. The alloplastic biomaterials belonged to 3 main classes calcium phosphate group (HA, TCP and HT), bioactive glass group (PG) and a combination graft (HABG). However even for those with similar chemical characteristics, significant differences were noted with regard to particle size, porosity, surface roughness, presence of functional groups, crystallinity and dissolution properties. Among the materials tested calcium phosphate based ceramics and bioactive glass – ceramic combination showed porous surface architecture parameters conducive to cellular and vascular proliferation. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that all the materials were phase pure with no impurities. Infra red spectrometry showed presence of functional groups essential for bone integration in all test materials with Perioglas and Biograft HABG showing presence of silica which has a beneficial effect in bone formation. X ray diffractometric analysis revealed that with the exception of Perioglas which was amorphous all the other materials were crystalline in nature. Increased dissolution of calcium and silica were seen in bioactive glass group when compared with calcium phosphate and mixed calcium phosphate grafts.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Physical and Chemical Properties ; Five Different Alloplastic Bone Graft Materials ; Comparison study.
Subjects: DENTAL > Periodontology
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 13 Nov 2017 18:22
Last Modified: 13 Nov 2017 18:22
URI: http://repository-tnmgrmu.ac.in/id/eprint/3943

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