Comparative Analysis Of Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid, Visual Inspection with Lugol’s Iodine, Conventional Pap Smear and Liquiprep with Histopathology as Gold Standard.

Anitha Rani, S (2013) Comparative Analysis Of Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid, Visual Inspection with Lugol’s Iodine, Conventional Pap Smear and Liquiprep with Histopathology as Gold Standard. Masters thesis, Madras Medical College, Chennai.

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Abstract

Carcinoma cervix is one of the leading causes of death among women in developing countries. For each case of cancer of body of the uterus, there are 25 cases of cancer cervix in India. About 5,00,000 new cases of carcinoma cervix are being diagnosed each year out of which 79% occur in the developing countries1. The 5 years survival rate is 90% for cervical cancer in the early stage whereas it is much lower (14%) for persons with advanced stage IV disease. The incidence of invasive cervical cancer has come down to a great extent over a span of 40 years, mainly because of early cancer detection programs. A close quarters observation on the social behaviour of our society reveals that most of the women in our country have their marriages at very early part of their life leading to early commencement of sexual activity and poor sexual hygiene which are considered to be important etiological factors for cervical carcinoma2. INCIDENCE In India, the age standardised incidence rate of carcinoma cervix is per 100,000 women and the global age standardised incidence rate is 16 per 100,0001. The death rate of cervical cancer in India is 6.5 per 1,00,000. PREVALENCE A conservative estimate of global prevalence states that there are about 1.7 million cases of clinically recognized cervical cancer and 5-13 million women have precancerous lesions. This estimate is high owing to the addition of new cases each year and also due to the fact that the diagnosed cases do not receive adequate treatment. Current resources about the natural history of cancer cervix suggest that there are two to five times women with potential precursors to cervical cancer such as those with invasive cervical carcinoma. This results in a rough estimate of 7,000,000 women around the world with high-grade dysplasia requiring detection and treatment. CAUSES OF SCREENING FAILURE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A number of women with cervical cancer do not turn up for investigations and hence are excluded from the cancer registry data resulting in considerably lower estimates of statistical parameters like cancer incidence, prevalence, and disease related mortality. Diagnostic facilities do not reach older women or those with financial constraint which pose a great challenge in estimating the current statistics. Recording the number of women with cervical cancer is problematic2 because of the lack of organized health information systems in developing countries like India.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Comparative Analysis ; Visual Inspection ; Acetic Acid; Visual Inspection ; Lugol’s Iodine; Conventional Pap Smear ; Liquiprep Histopathology ; Gold Standard.
Subjects: MEDICAL > Pathology
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 23 Jun 2017 07:55
Last Modified: 23 Jun 2017 07:58
URI: http://repository-tnmgrmu.ac.in/id/eprint/345

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