Phytochemical and Pharmacological investigation of some Indian Medicinal Plants in standard models

Kumbhare Manoj Ramesh, (2013) Phytochemical and Pharmacological investigation of some Indian Medicinal Plants in standard models. Doctoral thesis, The Tamilnadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical University, Chennai.


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Modern synthetic medicine approach is a very narrow approach which will give only symptomatic relief but do not cure the disease or disorder from its root. For thousands of years, natural products have been used in traditional medicine all over the world and predate the introduction of antibiotics and other modern drugs. So it is compulsory to investigate for native alternative drugs for the treatment of Diabetes, pain and inflammation and cancer. Plant materials which are being used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes are considered one of the good sources for a new drug or a lead to make a new drug. Plant extract or different folk plant preparations are being prescribed by the traditional clinicians and also accepted by the users for diabetes like for any other diseases in many countries especially in third world countries. The collected plant materials were identified and authenticated, then processed for successive extraction to obtain extracts. Phytochemical screening of the prepared extracts was conducted with various qualitative tests to identify the presence of chemical constituents. The tests were carried out as Sterols by Salkowaski test and Liebermann test, Glycosides screened by b-naphthol test, Alkaloids tested by Dragendroff’s test Triterpenoids by Libermann-Burchard test, for Flavonoids Shinoda test carried out, Naphthoquinones tested by Juglone test, Carotenoids by Carr-price reaction. Finally tannins were tested by Matchstick Test. The present study reveals that various extracts of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and stem bark of Moringa oleifera contains various phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, sterols, triterpenoids, glycosides etc. As these compounds lead to pharmacological effects. From the observation it was found that methanolic extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and Moringa oleifera was good scavenger of DPPH radical as DPPH radical scavenging capability is extensively used as an index to estimate the antioxidant potential of medicinal plants. Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity was determined according to the method reported by Garrat and shown significant results compared with standard ascorbic acid. The results showed that methanolic extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and Moringa oleifera presented the highest amount of polyphenol content than the other plants in the study. The abundance of both plant extract in polyphenol content should also explain the antioxidant activity results. It is well known that, phenolics constitute one of the major groups of compounds antioxidants. Regarding the antioxidants properties, the methods DPPH for a best appreciation of the results; because a recent study demonstrates that there are differences between the test systems for the determination of the antioxidants properties. In fact, it is interesting to evaluate at last two or more methods. Analysis of the results shows a linear relationship between polyphenol content and antioxidants properties. The note a good link between phenolic contents and antioxidant activity by reduction activity comparatively to the other antioxidant methods. The extracts studied showed significant lethality against brine shrimp. The invitro cytotoxic activity (LC 50) was found to be good for pet ether extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima 750 μg/ml by brine shrimp bioassay method. These extracts can be regarded as a hopeful candidate for a plant derived antitumor agent. Natural Anti-inflammatory Remedies for Arthritis is a continuation from the hub Anti-Inflammatory that revealed a list of herbs that can assist with the pain and swelling of Anti-Inflammatory. There were numerous comments on the first hub that offered natural remedies for arthritis that are working for individuals; hence this work has to compose this hub to provide more information on finding remedies for the arthritic pain and swelling. Effect of extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and Moringa oleifera on tail flick latency period and acetic acid induced writhing in mice was found to be good as compared with Diclofenac as standard. A significant increase in the reaction time for tail flick method indicated the analgesic effect by Caesalpinia pulcherrima and Moringa oleifera and also elucidates the involvement of central mechanism in analgesic action. Analgesic effect mediated through central mechanism indicates the involvement of endogenous opioid peptides and biogenic amines like 5HT inferred that methanolic extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and Moringa oleifera an effective analgesic agents. While comparing the Caesalpinia pulcherrima and Moringa oleifera extracts, the Moringa oleifera extract revealed higher effect than others. The extracts were evaluated for in-vitro and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in different models and shown inhibition of erythrocytes haemolysis in-vitro models as well as inhibition of carrageenan induced hind paw edema and inhibition of cotton pellet granuloma formation in rats. These results allowed us to make a link between flavonoids and anti-inflammatory activity by the haemolysis in-vitro inhibition method. The relationship between flavonoids and erythrocytes haemolysis in-vitro inhibition of the different extracts showed a significant activity. Stabilization of lysosomal is important in limiting the inflammatory response by preventing the release of lysosomal constituents of activated neutrophil, such as bacterial enzymes and proteases, which causes further tissue inflammation and damage upon extra cellular release. The lysosomal enzymes released during inflammation produce a various disorders. The extra cellular activity of these enzymes are said to be related to acute or chronic inflammation. The non steroidal drugs act either by inhibiting these lysosomal enzymes or by stabilizing the lysosomal membrane. Anti-inflammatory activity of our extracts could be explained by the abundance of the extracts in polyphenol content because, polyphenol as flavonoids have anti-inflammatory properties. For xantine oxidase inhibition, flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds which have been reported to possess xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. The results found that positive correlations between total flavonoids and xantine oxidase inhitory activity. Diabetes mellitus is a most common endocrine disorder, affecting more than 300 million people worldwide. Therefore, treating diabetes mellitus with plant derived compounds which are accessible and do not require laborious pharmaceutical synthesis seems highly attractive. In this an attempt has been made to compile the reported hypoglycemic plants from India and abroad and may be useful to the health professionals, scientists and scholars working the field of pharmacology and therapeutics to develop evidence-based alternative medicine to cure different kinds of diabetes in man and animals.Alloxan induced diabetic mellitus shown good Antidiabetic effect in rats. Isolation and identification of active constituents from these plants, preparation of standardized dose and dosage regimen can play a significant role in improving the hypoglycemic action. The potency of herbal drugs is significant and they have negligible side effects than the synthetic drugs. There is increasing demand by patients to use the natural products with anti-diabetic activity. In recent times there has been renewed interest in the plant remedies. Plants hold definite promises in the management of Diabetes mellitus. Isolation and identification of active constituents from these plants, preparation of standardized dose and dosage regimen can play a significant role in improving the hypoglycaemic action. The antimicrobial efficacy attributed to some plants in treating diseases has been beyond belief. Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites such as tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids, which have been found in-vitro to have antimicrobial properties. Screening of medicinal plants for antimicrobial activities and phytochemicals is important for finding potential new compounds for therapeutic use. Thus, in light of the evidence of rapid global spread of resistant clinical isolates, the need to find new antimicrobial agents is of paramount importance. However, the past record of rapid, widespread emergence of resistance to newly introduced antimicrobial agents indicates that even new families of antimicrobial agents will have a short life expectancy. For this reason, researchers are increasingly turning their attention to herbal products, looking for new leads to develop better drugs against microbe strains. Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of both plants exhibited significant antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity. However, further experiments will possibly define this pharmacological effect. If confirmed it, may become of importance for human clinical treatments.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Phytochemical, Pharmacological investigation, Indian Medicinal Plants, standard models.
Subjects: PHARMACY > Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 20 Aug 2017 05:52
Last Modified: 28 Oct 2022 14:23

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