Alpha - Fetoprotein expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Thiriveni Balajji, G S (2006) Alpha - Fetoprotein expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Masters thesis, PSG Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Coimbatore.


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On a global basis, primary liver cancer which is almost entirely hepatocellular carcinoma constitutes approximately 5.6% of cancers and in some populations is the most common cancer. The largest numbers of cases are found in Asia (76% of all hepatocellular carcinoma), followed by Africa. Annual incidence rates for hepatocellular carcinoma are below 5 cases per 1,00,000 population in North and South America, North and Central Europe and Australia with intermediate rates of upto 15 cases per 100,000 in countries bordering the Mediterranean. The highest annual incidence rates are found in Korea, Taiwan, Mozambique and Southeast China, approaching 36 per 100,000. Within each geographic area (low or high incidence), blacks have attack rates approximately threefold higher than Caucasians. In India, it is estimated that there are approximately 2 – 2.5 million cases of cancer at any given point of time, with around 7,00,000 new cases being detected each year. Nearly half of these cases die each year3. The incidence of liver malignancy is about 5.6 percent4 and among the top three causes of death from cancer are included the cancer of lung (17.8% of all deaths), stomach (10.4%) and liver (8.8%). In India, the National Cancer Registry Programme of the ICMR provides data on incidence from five population based registries. The age standardized cancer incidence at Mumbai in India for liver, was 4.9 per 1,00,000 in males and 2.5 per 1,00,000 in females. 1. Alpha - fetoprotein is a reliable immunocytochemical marker for hepatocellular carcinoma. 2. The expression of alpha - fetoprotein in the cells was found to be directly proportional to the grade of hepatocellular carcinoma. Further studies with more number of cases can be done to prove that this might be a useful marker to differentiate between low grade and high grade hepatocellular carcinoma cases. Also, alpha - fetoprotein can be included among a panel of other known markers like HepPar 1, p – CEA and m– CEA in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and the contribution by each of these markers in all cases can be evaluated and diagnostic accuracy can be enhanced. 3. Serum alpha - fetoprotein level is also related to the grade of hepatocellular carcinoma. Levels more than 400 ng/ml are common in high grade hepatocellular carcinoma. 4. HCV is more often associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (68%) than HBV (11%).

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Alpha-Fetoprotein expression; Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Subjects: MEDICAL > Pathology
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 21 Jun 2017 09:52
Last Modified: 22 Jun 2017 17:46

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