Effectiveness of Ice Cube Application upon Pain Perception of Children undergoing Venepuncture

Megha Susan, Thomas (2014) Effectiveness of Ice Cube Application upon Pain Perception of Children undergoing Venepuncture. Masters thesis, Apollo College of Nursing, Chennai.

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Abstract

An Experimental Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Ice Cube Application upon Pain Perception of Children Undergoing Venepuncture at Selected Hospitals, Chennai. OBJECTIVES: 1. To determine the level of pain perceived by control and experimental group of children during venepuncture. 2. To determine the effectiveness of ice cube application by comparing the pain perception among control and experimental group of children during venepuncture. 3. To determine the association between selected demographic variables and pain perception among control and experimental group of children during venepuncture. 4. To determine the association between selected clinical variables and pain perception among control and experimental group of children during venepuncture. 5. To determine the level of satisfaction of mothers and children regarding ice cube application in experimental group of children during venepuncture. The conceptual framework of the study was based on “Gate Control theory of Pain” given by Melzack and Wall which was modified for the present study. An experimental research approach with post test only design was used to achieve the objectives of the study. The present study was conducted in Apollo Children‟s Hospital, Chennai. A sample size of 60 children who met the inclusion criteria were chosen for this study of which 30 were taken for the control group and 30 for the experimental group using systematic random sampling. The study variables were pain perception of children undergoing venepuncture and ice cube application during venepuncture. An extensive review of literature and guidance by experts formed the foundation to the development of the tools for the study. The investigator used Demographic variables proforma, Clinical variables proforma, Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale and Rating Scale on the level of satisfaction about ice cube application during venepuncture to assess the outcome. The data collection tools were validated and reliability was established. After the pilot study, the data for the main study was collected using interview method. The children in the control group were assessed for pain perception using Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale without any intervention. In experimental group ice cube application was given at the site of venepuncture for a period of one minute. At the end of this period, venepuncture was performed and post assessment of pain perception was done immediately for one minute by using Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale. The level of satisfaction of experimental group of children was assessed using satisfaction rating scale. MAJOR FINDINGS: 1. Majority of the children were in lower primary class (80%, 86.7%), from nuclear family (73.3%, 93.3%) and were Hindu by religion (86.7%, 80%) in both control and experimental group respectively. 2. Majority of the children in control and experimental group had no previous history of hospitalization (70%, 76.7%) and no previous history of venepuncture (70%, 76.7%). 3. Majority of the children in control and experimental group were undergoing venepuncture for blood collection (63.3%, 93.3%) and the procedure was performed by nurses (93.3%, 100%). 4. Majority of children in control group experienced severe pain during venepuncture (66.7%) where as in experimental group had moderate pain (43.3%). 5. The mean and standard deviation of the control and experimental group of children is 7.7, 2.7, 2.11 and 1.45 respectively. The „t‟ value of 10.70 which is highly significant at P< 0.001 level of significance. Hence the null hypothesis H01 was rejected. 6. Majority of mothers and children were highly satisfied (87%) with ice cube application intervention during venepuncture. 7. The study findings revealed a significant association (p<0.001) between age of the child and pain perception in control and experimental group, but there was no significant association between other demographic variables and pain perception in control and experimental group. Hence, the null hypothesis H02 was partially rejected with regard to the age of the children and pain perception in both control and experimental group. 8. There was no significant association between clinical variables and pain perception in both control and experimental group. Hence null hypothesis H03 was retained. RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. The study can be conducted with larger samples to generalize the results. 2. The study can be conducted in different settings. 3. The study can be conducted for pain management during other invasive procedures. 4. A comparative study can be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of various other interventions to reduce pain. 5. The study can be conducted among children of different age groups. 6. A comparative study can be conducted to assess the effectiveness of ice cube application with other intervention like Emla cream application during venepuncture.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Effectiveness ; Ice Cube Application ; Pain Perception ; Children ; Venepuncture.
Subjects: NURSING > Paediatric Nursing
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 16 Aug 2017 00:38
Last Modified: 22 Dec 2018 11:55
URI: http://repository-tnmgrmu.ac.in/id/eprint/1788

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