Study on Prevalence of Enteric Parasitic Infections in HIV Infected Patients in Chennai.

Anand, B Janagond (2009) Study on Prevalence of Enteric Parasitic Infections in HIV Infected Patients in Chennai. Masters thesis, Stanley Medical College, Chennai.

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION : Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a global pandemic and an Extremely serious worldwide problem. According to the 2006 report on the global AIDS Pandemic by UNAIDS, the total number of persons living with HIV is 39.5 million . India is on the verge of having the greatest increase in the estimated number of People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in the world in the coming decades. Nationally, the HIV prevalence among adults (aged 15 – 49 years) is less than 1%, but with a population of more than 100 crores, estimated population of PLHA is 51.34 lakhs by the end of 2004 (NACO 2005 b). According to the UNAIDS statistics there were estimated 1,60,000 AIDS Cases in India in 2006.65 India is second only to South Africa in terms of the overall number of people living with the disease. In some north-eastern states and southern states of India, including Tamil Nadu, the HIV epidemic is classified as a generalized one, with more than 1% of women attending Antenatal clinics (ancs) being infected and an HIV prevalence among sexually transmitted Infection (STI) clinic patients of more than 5%. The first AIDS case in India was discovered In a female commercial sex worker in Tamil Nadu in 1986.53 According to the UNAIDS’ Statistics there were estimated 58,000 AIDS cases in Tamil Nadu in 2006; HIV infection Rates in STD patients being 9.2%. The type of pathogen responsible for morbidity and mortality vary from region to Region and it also varies with time. Therefore, identification of specific pathogen(s) is Important for management of such cases. Infections caused by these parasites can not be Differentiated clinically unless specific faecal examination is carried out. Since the enteric Illness due to parasitic aetiology among HIV patients is on the rise during recent times, the Present study was undertaken to study the status among HIV patients in Chennai. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : 1. To identify parasites causing intestinal infection in HIV seropositive patients. 2. To compare various methods for detection of intestinal parasites. 3. To estimate the prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasites in HIV infected patients in Chennai. 4. To correlate opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections with immune status of the patients (CD4 T lymphocyte counts). 5. To correlate opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections with duration of diarrhoea. CONCLUSION : Individuals with HIV/AIDS, because of their compromised immune status are at a higher risk of infections and especially opportunistic enteric intracellular parasites affect the small intestine and produce overwhelming results with grave prognosis. As parasites cause prolonged, life-threatening diarrhoea in AIDS patients, identification of these opportunistic parasites at the earliest will enable the clinician to give effective treatment and save the patient from increasing mortality. Protozoan parasites were found to be more common than helminths in HIV patients, of which coccidia comprised the major portion. Isospora was the commonest parasite detected. In the control group helminths were more common than protozoa and coccidian parasites and Stongyloides were not detected. HIV-infected individuals with lower immunity, as indicated by CD4 counts, suffered more with diarrhea, especially in chronic form. Parasites were common in lower immune status. Isospora was detected in a wide range of immune status including those without diarrhea, but highest rate of infection was seen with CD4 counts 100-200 cells/mm3. In the present study, simple techniques like wet mounts and modified acid fast staining could successfully identify a variety of enteric parasites in HIV patients. Formalin ether concentration procedure increased the sensitivity of detection.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Enteric Parasitic Infections ; Prevalence ; HIV Infected Patients ; Chennai.
Subjects: MEDICAL > Microbiology
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 26 Jul 2017 04:24
Last Modified: 26 Jul 2017 04:24
URI: http://repository-tnmgrmu.ac.in/id/eprint/1709

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