A Study of Otomycosis in Madurai.

Cinthujah, B (2006) A Study of Otomycosis in Madurai. Masters thesis, Madurai Medical College, Madurai.


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INTRODUCTION : Fungi constitute a large diverse group of heterotrophic organisms, most of which are found as saprophytes in the soil and decaying plant material. They are eukaryotes with nearly 50,000 species. They are essential in breaking down and recycling of organic matter. Some species contribute to the production of food, spirits, antibiotics and an array of enzymes. Incidence of fungal infections has been grossly underestimated. Fungal infections are on the increase due to improved survival of immuno suppressed patients and better diagnostic facilities. Only 100 to 150 species are generally recognized as a cause of disease in humans. Fungal infections are not communicable in the usual sense, but humans become an accidental host by inhalation of spores or by their introduction into tissue by trauma. The virulence factors favouring colonization of fungus in a human host are yet to be identified. Ability of the fungus to grow at 37oC and elaboration of a variety of enzymes and toxins are speculated to contribute to virulence. Fungi are ubiquitous in the environment and consequently all are exposed to their infectious element. The external auditory canal is a skin lined cul-de-sac for effective sound transmission, and to protect the middle and inner ears from trauma, infection and environmental extremes. It is constantly exposed to a variety of fungal spores present in the air. Fungi are the causative agents of Otomycosis . They are seen in immuno competent persons and Aspergillus is the commonest causative organism of this condition. AIM AND OBJECTIVES : To study the prevalence of Otomycosis in Madurai. To analyse the various predisposing factors responsible for Otomycosis. To isolate the fungi causing Otomycosis. To see the association of bacterial infections in Otomycosis. To find out the anti fungal susceptibility of the isolates. CONCLUSION : The incidence of Otomycosis is more during monsoon period. Males are more affected. Unilateral incidence of disease is common. CSOM is the most common predisposing factor. Aspergillus flavus is the most common fungal isolate. Aspergillus flavus is the most common isolate in agriculturists and labourers. (outdoor workers) Aspergillus niger is the common fungal isolate in females. Candida is the commonest isolate in Diabetes mellitus. A. flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus and A. glaucus are sensitive to Amphotericin B and Itraconazole. A. terreus is 100% resistant to Amphotericin B. Candida species and Penicillium are 100% susceptible to Itraconazole. The frequency of recovery of certain fungal species such as A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus and Candida albicans from Otomycosis reflects the great ubiquity of the distribution of their spores and hence exposure to them. Particular virulence factors also attribute to the increased frequency. A. flavus and A. fumigatus elaborate 2 exo enzymes ( i ) elastate – which degrades elastin, Scleroprotein and enhances invasion of elastin containing tissues like skin and ear. (ii) Alkaline protease which degrades collagen, elastin and enhances invasion. Candida has cell wall glycoprotein that helps in adherence to epithelial surface. Candida albicans has in addition epithelial and monocyte cytocidal activity.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Otomycosis ; Madurai.
Subjects: MEDICAL > Microbiology
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 24 Jul 2017 04:50
Last Modified: 24 Jul 2017 04:50
URI: http://repository-tnmgrmu.ac.in/id/eprint/1673

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