Anatomical Localisation of Motor Entry Points of Flexor Muscles of Forearm involved in Spasticity

Theresa Susan, Kuriakose (2020) Anatomical Localisation of Motor Entry Points of Flexor Muscles of Forearm involved in Spasticity. Masters thesis, Christian Medical College, Vellore.

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Spasticity of forearm flexors is common in medical disorders such as cerebral palsy, stroke and multiple sclerosis. This can cause structural as well as functional deformities, induce skin breakdown, joint contracture, pain, poor personal hygiene and functional impairment of the upper limb. Many studies have been conducted, about the treatment of spasticity of muscles. It includes giving drugs like Baclofen, Dantrolene, Diazepam and Gabapentin. Other method of decreasing spasticity is neurectomy (cutting the nerve branches which supplies the particular muscle). However, this is a technique with unwanted side effects. Another proposed method of treatment is chemo-denervation by injecting neurolytic agents like phenol, alcohol or botulinum toxin (Botox) into the affected muscle. Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin from an anaerobic bacterium named Clostridium botulinum. Botulinum toxin is also used in symptomatic treatment of neuralgia, strabismus, chronic migraine and for cosmetic purposes. OBJECTIVES: 1. To identify the motor entry points of certain flexor muscles of the forearm (flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor digitorum profundus). 2. To determine the total number of motor entry points to these muscles. 3. To compare the total number of motor entry points between sides and gender. 4. To describe the position of the proximal and distal motor entry points for these muscles as X and Y coordinates in relation to a vertical and a horizontal reference line respectively. 5. To identify the dense zone of motor entry points in the forearm for each muscle. 6. To look for gender differences in the dense zone of motor entry points for these flexor muscles of the forearm. 7. To compare the dense zone between the right and left sides for these muscles. 8. To find the correlation between the length of the vertical reference line and the total number of motor entry points. METHODS: 30 upper limbs from 15 formalin-fixed adult cadavers of median age of 78yrs, donated to the Department of Anatomy of CMC Vellore were used. All the motor entry points to flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor digitorum profundus were identified. The dense zone of motor entry points for all these muscles were located in the quartiles of a vertical reference line on the front of forearm. RESULTS: 1. The median of length of vertical reference line was 24.25 cm. 2. The mode of the number of motor entry points for; flexor carpi radialis was 2, flexor carpi ulnaris was 1, flexor digitorum superficialis was 6, flexor digitorum profundus from median nerve was 3, flexor digitorum profundus from ulnar nerve was 2 and flexor pollicis longus was 3. 3. The dense zone of flexor carpi radialis was between 19.57 to 24.90%, flexor carpi ulnaris was between 17.62 to 22.46%, flexor digitorum superficialis was between 23.30 to 69.78%, flexor digitorum profundus from median nerve was between 30.10 to 42.34%, flexor digitorum profundus from ulnar nerve was between 18.74 to 26.08% and flexor pollicis longus was between 40.39 to 50.17% of the vertical reference line. 4. The dense zone of flexor carpi radialis and flexor carpi ulnaris was in the first quartile, flexor digitorum profundus was in the 1st and 2nd quartile, flexor pollicis longus was in the 2nd quartile, flexor digitorum superficialis was in the 3rd and 4th quartile of the vertical reference line.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Additional Information: 201733204
Uncontrolled Keywords: Motor entry points, Dense zone, Vertical reference line, Quartile.
Subjects: MEDICAL > Anatomy
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 06 Feb 2021 04:18
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2021 04:18
URI: http://repository-tnmgrmu.ac.in/id/eprint/13919

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