Macro and Microscopic study of Human Placenta in Normal and Complicated Pregnancies

Hemalatha, M (2020) Macro and Microscopic study of Human Placenta in Normal and Complicated Pregnancies. Masters thesis, Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai.

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Placenta acts as a mirror which reflects intrauterine status of foetus. Placenta is considered as a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and important factor affecting foetal growth which is generally associated with placental insufficiency. Pregnancy complications like hypertension, gestational diabetes and thyroid disease are reflected macroscopically and microscopically in the placenta. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present dissertation aims to study the morphological, morphometric, microscopic features of placenta in normal and complicated pregnancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study will be conducted in 148human placenta comprising of 37normal, 37 pregnancy induced hypertension, 37 gestational diabetes mellitus and 37 thyroid disease complicating pregnancy. The placenta will be collected immediately after delivery from the labour ward in Department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Government Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai. After gross examination, placenta will be processed for histological study in Department of Anatomy, Govt. Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai. Age group of 18-30 years and from 28-40 weeks of gestational age irrespective of parity are included. Pregnant mothers below 18 years and above 30 years, placenta below 28 weeks of gestation and above 40 weeks of gestation (post-dated pregnancy), ectopic and any infections complicating pregnancies are excluded. Morphological parameters of placenta like shape, number of maternal surface cotyledons, presence or absence of calcifications and morphological parameters of umbilical cord like site of attachment of umbilical cord, spiral turns of umbilical cord, presence or absence of knots in umbilical cord. Morphometric parameters of placenta like mean diameter, thickness, circumference, surface area and weight of placenta, morphometric parameters of umbilical cord like mean diameter, circumference are studied. Histology of placenta also studied. RESULTS: Normal and PIH complicating pregnancy: In comparison of normal and PIH complicating pregnancy, the morphometric parameters of placenta like mean thickness and weight are found to be statistically significant. In the morphometric parameters of umbilical cord the mean diameter and circumference are statistically significant (P<0.05). In microscopic examination, numerous syncytial knots, perivillous fibrin deposition, villous agglutination are observed in PIH complicating placenta and absent in normal placenta. Normal and GDM complicating pregnancy: In comparison of normal and GDM complicating pregnancy, the morphometric parameters of placenta like mean thickness, weight, number of cotyledons are found to be statistically significant (P<0.05). In microscopic examination, perivillous fibrin deposition and villous thrombosis are present in GDM and absent in normal placenta. Normal and thyroid disease complicating pregnancy: In comparison of normal and thyroid disease complicating pregnancy, the morphometric parameters of placenta like mean diameter, thickness, circumference, surface area, number of maternal surface cotyledons and the weight are statistically significant (P<0.05). In microscopic examination syncytial knots fibrin deposition in perivillous space present in thyroid complicating placenta and absent in normal placenta. CONCLUSION: It is observed from the above mentioned findings that the factors complicating pregnancy like PIH, GDM, Thyroid disorders have positive influence on the placental morphology, morphometry and histological finding. By diagnosing the risk factors during the early antenatal period and treating they will improve the outcome of the delivery. Thus examination of placenta post-delivery becomes essential and helps to investigate the placental dysfunction in detail.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Additional Information: 201733552
Uncontrolled Keywords: placenta, morphology, microscopic, pregnancy induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, thyroid.
Subjects: MEDICAL > Anatomy
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 06 Feb 2021 03:36
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2021 03:36
URI: http://repository-tnmgrmu.ac.in/id/eprint/13913

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