Seroprevalence of Brucellosis among Animal Handlers and Analysis of Risk Factors.

Nirmala Devi, S (2013) Seroprevalence of Brucellosis among Animal Handlers and Analysis of Risk Factors. Masters thesis, Tirunelveli Medical College,Tirunelveli.

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION : Brucellosis is a re-emerging infectious disease, by Brucella spp and usually transmitted to humans from infected animals. It is a most important source of disease in humans and live stocks. The clinical manifestations in humans differs from an acute febrile illness to a chronic, low grade ill defined disease. In each year 5,00,000 new cases are reported worldwide, but according to the WHO these numbers greatly underestimate the true incidence, because the clinical picture of human brucellosis is extremely variable and misdiagnosed by physicians. However, the actual incidence seems to be twenty five times higher than the reported incidence. Brucella is considered a biological weapon in the category B pathogen, inhalation of only a few organisms is sufficient to cause infection. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : 1. To detect the seroprevalence of brucellosis among animal handlers in Tirunelveli district of Tamil nadu. 2. To analyse the risk factors associated with the seropositivity of Brucella infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A total of 130 blood samples from veterinary surgeons, veterinary hospital workers and farmers of Tirunelveli district were collected. A total of 130 blood samples were collected from Doctors, Post graduate students, lab technicians and clerical staffs of Tertiary care hospital of Tirunelveli. Thus a total of 260 individuals participated in this study. This ELISA method works on the principle that antibodies in the sample reacts with the antigen adsorbed on the polystyrene surface. Those unbound immunoglobulins are washed off. To this antigen – antibody complex, an enzyme-labelled anti-human globulin binds. Finally the substrate binds to the entire complex forming blue coloured soluble product which turns into yellow after adding the 0.5M sulphuric acid. RESULTS : The animal handlers were divided into two groups according to their Brucella IgG ELISA positive and negative results. They were matched according to their age and gender. The continuous variables between the two groups were compared by Student’s unpaired ‘t’ test and the categorical variables were compared by χ 2 (Chi-square) test. The above statistical procedures were performed by the statistical package IBM SPSS statistics -20. The P values <0.05 determined the significance in two tailed tests. CONCLUSION : The present study showed a significantly higher seroprevalence among animal handlers compared to the controlgroup. Occupationally exposed persons to animal were at greater risk of acquiring brucellosis. Higher age groups, long duration of exposure to animals, handling and participation in vaccination of animals and consumption of raw dairy products were significantly associated with the increased seroprevalence. Awareness of brucellosis was significantly associated with the decreased seroprevalence. Gender and nature of work among the animal handlers did not show any significant association. The results of this study emphasizes that contact with animals and ingestion of contaminated animal products are important methods of transmission of brucellosis. To prevent the occupation related brucellosis the veterinary health professionals, animal husbandary workers and laboratory personnel should wear PPE and follow adequate hand hygienic measures. There is no human vaccine to prevent brucellosis in man. Since the disease has been seen as a major occupational hazard to the animal handlers, the successful way for the control of disease in human beings is by proper elimination of the infected animals and vaccinating the non infected animals. Reporting the existence of brucellosis to health authorities and veterinary professionals is essential and knowledge about the prevalence of the disease can be used to prioritize a disease control strategy and to alert the health authorities.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Seroprevalence ; Brucellosis ; Animal Handlers ; Analysis ; Risk Factors.
Subjects: MEDICAL > Microbiology
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 14 Aug 2017 02:46
Last Modified: 14 Aug 2017 02:46
URI: http://repository-tnmgrmu.ac.in/id/eprint/1338

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