A Study to Assess the Effect of Skin Stimulation on Reduction of Procedural Pain during Intramuscular Vaccination among Infants at Sree Mookambika Medical College Hospital, Kulasekharam, Kanyakumari District

Dhanya Abhilash, (2012) A Study to Assess the Effect of Skin Stimulation on Reduction of Procedural Pain during Intramuscular Vaccination among Infants at Sree Mookambika Medical College Hospital, Kulasekharam, Kanyakumari District. Masters thesis, Sree Mookambika College of Nursing, Kulasekharam.

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Abstract

Pain is defined by the international association for the study of pain as “unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage”. (Sifford, 1997) Fears of bodily injury and pain are prevalent among children. The consequence of these fears can be far reaching in children who are more fearful of pain as adults and tends to avoid medical care. (Pate and others, 1996) Thus the investigator selected this study to assess the effect of skin stimulation on reduction of procedural pain during intramuscular vaccination among infants. Callista Roy’s adaptation model was adopted for this study . An extensive review of literature was done for the study, which helped the investigator to identify; select, critically analyze and report on existing information of the problem selected for the study. OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess the pain level of infants during intramuscular vaccination after performing skin stimulation in the experimental group. 2. To assess the pain level of infants during intramuscular vaccination without performing skin stimulation in the control group. 3. To assess the effect of skin stimulation by comparing the pain level of infants in the experimental group and control group. 4. To determine the association between the pain level of infants in the control group and their selected demographic variables such as age (order of dose),sex, birth order, previous experience of pain and birth weight. HYPOTHESES: 1. There is a significant difference in the pain level of infants during intramuscular vaccination between the experimental group and control group. 2. There is a significant association between the pain level of infants receiving intramuscular vaccination in control group and selected demographic variables such as age(order of dose), sex, birth weight, previous experience of pain and birth weight. The study was conducted in the pediatric outpatient department of Sree Mookambika Medical College Hospital, Kulasekharam. 60 samples were selected by purposive sampling technique (30 in experimental group and 30 in control group). Pain level of both experimental and control groups were assessed immediately after intramuscular vaccination. The pilot study was conducted during the month of June 2011 and the main study was conducted from July 2011 to August 2011. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the mean pain score and standard deviation. Inferential statistics was used to determine the significance and association. CONCLUSION: The study findings revealed that skin stimulation was effective in reducing procedural pain during intramuscular vaccination among infants. There is a significant association between birth weight of infants and their pain level. NURSING IMPLICATAIONS: The findings of the study provide implications for nursing practice, nursing education, nursing research and nursing administration. NURSING EDUCATION: 1. Orientation can be given to all new staffs on skin stimulation to reduce procedural pain during intramuscular vaccination among infants. 2. Inservice education can be given to the nursing personnel regarding skin stimulation in reducing procedural pain. 3. The nursing students can be prepared to provide skin stimulation to the infants prior to intramuscular vaccination. NURSING PRACTICE: 1. The present study will help the nurses to identify the effect of skin stimulation in reducing pain during intramuscular vaccination among infants. 2. Nurses can implement skin stimulation before giving intramuscular vaccinations to infants. NURSING RESEARCH: 1. Extensive researches can be conducted in various settings regarding skin stimulation in reducing pain. 2. The study can be done in various settings and for different age groups. 3. The beginning researchers can use the same technique for managing other types of pain. NURSING ADMINISTRATION: 1. The nurse administrator may encourage the nurses to actively implement skin stimulation prior to intramuscular vaccination. 2. The nurse administrator can prepare a protocol on skin stimulation techniques for nurses in pediatric units. LIMITATIONS: 1. The study was conducted among infants receiving intramuscular vaccination at Sree Mookambika Medical College Hospital, Kulasekharam only. 2. The study was conducted with 60 samples only. Hence generalization is possible only for the selected samples. 3. Few mothers were reluctant to participate their infants in the study. RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. A similar study can be conducted in a larger population. 2. Studies can be done for comparing the effects of different pain reduction techniques during vaccination. 3. The effect of other methods like music therapy, laughter therapy, play therapy etc can be assessed by similar studies according to the age group. 4. The effect of skin stimulation can be tested in children of various developmental age groups.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Skin Stimulation, Reduction of Procedural Pain, Intramuscular Vaccination, Infants, Sree Mookambika Medical College Hospital, Kulasekharam, Kanyakumari District.
Subjects: NURSING > Paediatric Nursing
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 18 Aug 2020 19:11
Last Modified: 19 Aug 2020 02:19
URI: http://repository-tnmgrmu.ac.in/id/eprint/12896

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