Pancytopenia: A Clinico-haematological evaluation and correlation with bone marrow examination

Dougul Regis, M (2017) Pancytopenia: A Clinico-haematological evaluation and correlation with bone marrow examination. Masters thesis, Madras Medical College, Chennai.


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INTRODUCTION: Pancytopenia is a condition in which there is decrease in the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It is not a disease but a triad of findings that may result from various disease processes which primarily or secondarily involves the bone marrow. The severity and underlying pathology of pancytopenia determines the management and prognosis of the patients. Haematological investigation forms the bedrock in the detection and management of patients with pancytopenia. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To diagnose patients with pancytopenia according to the following criteria Hb < 9 gm/dl, total leukocyte count <4000/mm3 and platelet count < 1,00,000/mm3, to correlate the clinical and haematological parameters with bone marrow examination and to analyze the various causes of pancytopenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 cases were selected based on inclusion criteria and a complete clinical and haematological evaluation was done. Peripheral smear was obtained and stained by Leishman stain for all cases and examined in detail. Bone marrow aspiration /biopsy was subsequently carried out under aseptic precautions after obtaining written consent from the parent or guardian. Special stains and immunohistochemistry were done to confirm the diagnosis. RESULTS: Among the 100 cases, 58 were male and 42 cases were females with the male to female ratio of 1.38:1. The most common cause was aplastic anemia which accounts for 44% of cases. This was followed by megaloblastic anemia in 37% of cases, acute myeloid leukemia (8%) myelofibrosis (3%), myelodysplastic syndrome (3%), malarial parasite (2%) multiple myeloma (1%) and osteopetrosis (1%). CONCLUSION: Bone marrow examination is the investigation of choice to diagnose the etiology of unexplained pancytopenia. Every attempt should be done to establish the underlying cause so that treatable conditions are diagnosed without delay and prognosis improved.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Additional Information: Reg.No.201413002
Uncontrolled Keywords: Pancytopenia, Aplastic anemia, Megaloblastic anemia, Bone marrow examination.
Subjects: MEDICAL > Pathology
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 18 Jul 2020 14:30
Last Modified: 18 Jul 2020 14:30

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