Clinicopathological Correlation of Leprosy cases in and around Madurai

Abdul Majeeth, S (2011) Clinicopathological Correlation of Leprosy cases in and around Madurai. Masters thesis, Madurai Medical College, Madurai.

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Leprosy a chronic infectious disease also known as Hansen’s Disease, is caused by Mycobacterium Leprae(M.Leprae), primarily affects the peripheral nervous system, the skin and certain other tissues such as reticulo endothelial system, bones and joints, mucous membranes, eyes, testis, muscles, adrenals etc. Leprosy is an ancient disease existed in our community for a long time, prevalent for thousands of years all over the world, now endemic only in the tropical and subtropical countries. Tropical leprosy today is not the leprosy of yesterday. Leprosy, the most dreaded disease of mankind still continues to be major challenge to bio medical and social sciences. It continues to be an important public health problem in most parts of Asia, Africa, Latin America. Every third leprosy patient in the world is a resident of India. Many factors such as movements of populations from rural to urban areas and country to country, overcrowding, poverty, malnutrition, inadequate and untimely treatment accentuate the prevalence. Leprosy expresses itself in different clinicopathological forms, depending on the immune status of the host. AIM OF THE STUDY: 1. To study the incidence of leprosy cases in and around Madurai. 2. To study the age incidence of leprosy cases. 3. To study the sex incidence of leprosy cases. 4. To study and correlate the clinico pathological features of leprosy cases. 5. To study the role of histopathology and special stains in Leprosy. SUMMARY: 1. This study was conducted in Madurai Medical College, Madurai from Jan 2008 to Nov 2010. The specimens were received from Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai. 2. Among the 136 known and clinically suspected cases of leprosy, 50 were reported as various types of leprosy. 3. Lepromatous leprosy (LL) is the most common type– 27 cases (54%) followed by Tuberculoid (TT & BT) (Polar, Borderline) each constitute 9 cases (18% + 18%) Borderline Lepromatous (BL) 4 cases (8%) and Mid bordedrline (BB) 2% 4. Leprosy is common in adults, than in children, with the adult children ratio of 15.6:1 Leprosy cases are common between the age group of 30 to 50 years. 5. Leprosy is common in males with the male to female ratio of 2.8:1. 6. Out of 50 cases, 34 were new cases and 16 were old cases. 7. Leprosy case in this study commonly presented as multiple lesions rather than single lesion. 8. The common presentation of leprosy cases are plaques, followed by nodules. 9. Out of 50 cases, most of the cases show multiple nerve involvement. Among the peripheral nerves, ulnar nerve is commonly involved, followed by lateral popliteal nerve. 10. Among the 50 cases studied, sensation is preserved in 20 cases, of which 16 cases are lepromatous leprosy. 11. Most of the cases presented with deformities such as ear lobe infiltration and madarosis. 12. Lesions are more common in the upper limb than in the lower limb. 13. Clinico histopathological correlation is maximum in lepromatous leprosy, followed by Borderline lepromatous, Borderline Tuberculoid, Tuberculoid and least in mid borderline leprosy. 14. Fite Faraco stain done on 50 cases show positivity in 18 cases which helped to seggregate the infective cases from non infective cases. CONCLUSION: The exact diagnosis of leprosy is possible by understanding the spectral concept which precede an awareness of the multiplicity of the clinical manifestations, of the disease, correct positioning of the patients disease on the spectrum of diagnosis. It will therefore help in determining the likely response and duration of treatment., so that proper precautions can be taken to prevent them. The various clinical features of the leprosy patient are correlated with the histopathological study of the skin biopsy specimens. The study of the Fite Faraco stain helped to isolate the infective and non infective cases and also to know about the bacillary load in each cases. Therefore it is possible for the clinicians to continue the treatment protocol and advise preventive measures. A good health education to patients, their family, friends and community is the process of preventing this phenomonen which enables one to reposes one’s role and functions in the society.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Clinicopathological Correlation, Leprosy cases, in and around Madurai.
Subjects: MEDICAL > Pathology
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 23 Mar 2020 16:51
Last Modified: 17 Aug 2020 05:49
URI: http://repository-tnmgrmu.ac.in/id/eprint/12443

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