Standardization on Purification process of VEERAM: A Comparative Analysis

Lavanya, P (2019) Standardization on Purification process of VEERAM: A Comparative Analysis. Masters thesis, Government Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai.


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One of the most important aspects of siddha system is purification of the raw materials before using them for medicine. In this scientific era, it is very essential to determine changes in the material during the process of purification. Standardization is necessary to ensure the availability of the uniform product in all part of the world. Thus today standardization is very essential to focus on our system of medicine for practice. Based on the above rationale the present study was carried out with an aim to standardize the purification of Veeram based on some qualitative and quanitative analysis as per PLIM guidelines. Veeram which is one of the mineral compound mentioned in the Siddha literatures to treat major illness. From the above study report, purification process of Veeram is more important and high lightened to analyse change its complicated form into more easily acceptable form. Raw Veeram, Padigaram, Soodan was procured from the reputed country shop in Nagercoil and Kariuppu was purchased from local market in Tirunelveli. The raw drug was authenticated by experts of PG Gunapadam department, Government Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai. Milagu was purchased from local market in Sattur and authenticated by Botanist, Government Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai. Then the raw drug Veeram was divided into three equal quantities of 35g. One of the part of the raw drug was taken and powdered well and kept as such labelled as V1. The other two part of the raw drug Veeram was subjected to purification process by two methods. After the completion of purification procedure, the treated Veeram was powdered and labelled as V2, which is purified by method I and V3, which is purified by method II. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were done for V1, V2 and V3. The physicochemical analysis of V1, V2 and V3 reveals the changes in colour and pH. The change in loss of drying from before to after purification process depicts the extensive shelf life of the drug. After purification V2 lost its 17.14g% weight and sample V3 lost its 42.85g% weight and qualitatively indicated that the concentration of mercury was reduced better on compared with sample V1. From the extraction value, it was concluded that water is a better solvent of extraction than Alcohol. In chemical analysis revealed the presence of Carbonate, Sodium, Calcium, Ferrous Iron, Sulphate, Chloride and Mercury in all the three samples V1, V2 and V3. The presence of Silicate was found in V1 and V3. Absence in V2.Aluminium was present in the Sample V1 and V3 which was absent in the sample V2. This indicated that some chemical compounds disappeared after purification. In ICP-OES, elements such as Arsenic, Aluminium, Cadmium, Copper, Nickel and Lead were found below detection limit in all samples. Mercury was reduced after purification in both V2 & V3. It was confirmed that mercury level found to be decreased after purification of Veeram. In FTIR, V1 shows Alkyl halide C-I stretch, Alkyl halide C-Cl stretch, Alkyl halide C-F stretch, Alkene C-H, Amide C=O stretch, Acid O-H, Water (O-H stretch). Compared with V1, the FTIR spectra of purified sample V2 shows in addition of functional groups such as Alkanes and phenols. Sample V3 shows in addition of functional groups such as amines, Carboxylic acid and phenols. FTIR spectrum of sample V2 and sample V3 indicates either the formation of new organo mercuric compounds or presence of some organic compounds originally present in the herbal preparation used for the process of purification. It also confirmed the existance of Mercury chloride in purified veeram. SEM analysis depicted the changes in particle size range before and after purification. Among V1, V2 and V3 drugs, V1 batch of drugs shows smaller particle sizes compared to V2 and V3. X-ray diffraction of the samples inform the genuinity and stability of the formulation, with respect to the standard reference materials. The elemental composition of V1 showed the presence of Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) along with Sodium Mercury (II) Trichloride Dihydrate in small proportion. After purification in both V2 and V3, Mercury sulphide (HgS) is also present along with compounds of V1. Thus it can be postulate that the purification procedures as mentioned in Siddha literature help to remove the toxic effect without interfering its therapeutic efficacy. It may reduce the effect of toxic substance in the drug. The study stresses the need of purification process of the drug before going to preparation of medicines with strong evidence. Information obtained from these studies can be used as markers in the identification and statndardization of this mineral. CONCLUSION: From the study, the speciation analysis of Unpurified Veeram (V1) showed the presence of Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) along with Sodium Mercury (II) Trichloride Dihydrate in small proportion. Purification performed by both the methods resulted in addition of Mercury sulphide (HgS) along with compounds of V1. Siddha system insists on Purification before using them in the pharmaceutical preparations. This is the preliminary important procedure in preparing a medicine. The present study is an attempt to establish the scientific basis of purification for Veeram. The aim of purification is to minimize the toxic effect of the drug and enhance the potency and safe of a drug. The changes found in Veeram after purification indicates the necessity of purification. Hence it can be concluded that the concept of purification procedure as mentioned in Siddha text provides contemporary evidence with a good scientific background. These explorations will definitely help to set a standard procedure for purification of Veeram in future

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Additional Information: (Reg.No.321616005)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Standardization, purification process, VEERAM, comparative analysis.
Subjects: AYUSH > Nanju Noolum Maruthuva Neethi Noolum
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 14 Mar 2020 05:51
Last Modified: 14 Mar 2020 05:51

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