Evaluate the safety, cytotoxic and antiproliferative activity of Putru Pathangam in cell line and animal model

Visweswaran, (2016) Evaluate the safety, cytotoxic and antiproliferative activity of Putru Pathangam in cell line and animal model. Doctoral thesis, National Institute of Siddha, Chennai.


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Cancer, one of the leading cause of death worldwide (accounting for 8.2 million deaths in 2012), continues to affect people at an alarmingly increasing rate globally. In the developing countries, certain infections are the main reasons for 20% of the cancer deaths. Siddha System occupies an important place in providing healthcare with its significant therapeutics value and magnificent preparation of medicine. The Siddha treatment deals not only as a curative but also as a preventive, which ensures various therapeutically efficacious and promising drugs which revamps various degenerative disorders and sustains vitality. Putru pathangam, a herbo-mineral formulation, is used for many years in Siddha System of Medicine. The formulation mentioned in the Siddha Text ‘Anuboga vaithya navaneethan-part10’; has been indicated for Marbu putru (Breast cancer), Vai putru (Buccal cancer), Kanna putru (Cheek cancer), Algul putru (Vaginal cancer). So far, No studies were established in antiproliferative and cytotoxic property of Putru pathangam. The raw drugs and other ingredients were purified as per the methods prescribed in Siddha literatures. The purified Rasam, Lingam, Kandhagam, vellai padanam, Thalagam, Kantham, Manosilai, Pooram, jathkkai, Kuppai meni charu. First mercury was ground with sulphur and remaining ingredients were made it into fine powder individually, then all powders were mixed together and ground with Acalypha indica juice for 1 hr and pasted in a cloth, dried in sun light. Two equal parts of common salts were taken, one part of the common salt was placed in a pot, above processed cloth was placed over it and remaining part of the common salt was placed. The pot was covered with another earthen pot having identical size of mouth and sealed with seven layers of mud pasted cloth. Then mud pot was heated for 12 hours. After it was allowed to cool itself, Then the cloth was removed and the pathangam which was found deposited on the upper mud pot was taken and powered. .The Putru pathangam thus prepared was subjected to physico-chemical analysis, morphological analysis, spectral studies, toxicity studies and MTT assay study and anti cancer study in animal model. Chapter –I deals with siddha system for cancer and usage of Putru pathangam Chapter – II gives a brief account of our aim and objectives. Chapter III the reviwe of literature. Chapter – IV deals with various materials and the different methods used in our research work. It begins with physico-chemical screening of the drug, to predict the responsible factor for the remarkable antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity of Putru pathangam. Chapter – V presents the observed data . Chapter – VI inferences obtained from the observed data. In physico chemical analysis of Putru pathangam shows a pH of 6.5 which is suitable for oral administration. The low percentage (7.31%) of loss on drying at 105o C reveals the fact that the volatile component present in the sample is very less which is required for long duration. Total ash content was found to be 12.66%, Acid insoluble ash 4.221%. The EDAX and XRF procedures applied on the sample gives the value of trace elements present in it. The percentage of heavy metals like mercury, cadmium and arsenic were found out by ICP OES in Putru pathangam were within the WHO permissible limit. This proves Putru pathangam can be given as safe drug. UV spectrum shows peak at 239 nm which is within the absorbable limit and it shows the putru pathangam is safe drug. IR spectrum shows peaks at the following frequencies, 3409 cm -1 3262 cm-1, 2106 cm-1, 1622 cm-1, 1422 cm-1, 1033 cm-1 , 794 cm-1 indicate the presence of Primary amine, carboxylic acid, alkyne, conjugated alkene, in-plane OH bending, sulphoxide in the sample. SEM analysis of the particle shows that the sizes of the particles are 2 nm to 20 nm which is necessary criteria for better absorption in intestine. In Acute toxicity study no mortality was observed. Food consumption of all treated animals were found normal. The acute toxicity study also revealed that the drug was found to be safe upto 100 mg/kg bw. Body weight change in drug treated animals was found normal. In this study Putru pathangam was found to be safe up to 100 mg/kg, p.o. Hence, 12, 24 and 48 mg/kg, p.o. doses were fixed with reference to human dose mentioned in the literature. In Subacute toxicity study no signs of toxicity were observed in animals from different dose Putru pathangam treated groups during the dosing period of 28 days. The increase in the values which obtained was within normal biological limits and the effect was not dose dependent. Histopathology examination was performed for mammary gland, lymph nodes, eyes, brain, trachea, thyroid, thymus, heart, lungs, stomach, small and large intestines spleen, liver, adrenals, kidneys, urinary bladder, testes, epididymis, male sex glands ovaries, uterus with cervix, vagina, peripheral nerve, skeletal muscle, bone with bone marrow and spinal cord of all the animals with control, low dose, mid dose and high dose of Putru pathangam. This proves the safety of Putru pathangam In Sub-chronic toxicity showed no abnormal change internal organs of the test animals. In cell line study, trial drug produces significant effect in the concentration of200μg/ml which inhibits the viability of cancer cells. Mean survival time of Putru pathangam treated animal group is increase when it compared with EAC control group. Per centage of increased life span Putru pathangam treated animal group is also significantly increased. Tumour volume is significantly decreased and Viable cell count is decreased when compared with EAC control group. Haemoglobin level ,RBC level, WBC level are increased, Platelet counts are increased in various dose of Putru pathangam treated animal groups when compared with control group. These are important prognosis factor during the treatment of cancer. Levels SGOT and SGPT are with in normal range when compared with EAC control group, which depicts trial medicine maintains normal function of the liver. Increased levels of TBARS, Catalase, LPO, GSH in the Putru pathangam treated animal groups when compared with control group. These antioxidant enzymes are essential to protect against cancer. CONCLUSION: In Siddha System of Medicine, Herbo-mineral medicines play a key role in the treatment of Putru(Cancer). Many a number of metal and mineral products are stated to exhibit antiproliferative activity in Indian system of medicine. But still there are many drugs whose traditional uses are not yet scientifically exploited. Therefore the present work was undertaken. The fingerprint generated through standardization techniques and it will be very much helpful to prepare the drug in a standard quality as well as for further clinical research. Safety of the Putru pathanga substantiated through characterization study. Toxicity studies and efficacy studies of Putru pathangam were carried out in experimental animal models showed the safety and effectiveness of the drug against Putru noi (Cancer). Cell line study shows the significant cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect of Putru pathangam. Anticancer study in animal model confirms the anticancer effect of putru pathangam as mentioned in Siddha classical text . This finding supports the traditional claim of Putru pathangam usage in the treatment of Putru Noi.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: safety, cytotoxic and antiproliferative activity, Putru Pathangam, cell line and animal model.
Subjects: AYUSH > Gunapadam
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 14 Jan 2020 16:45
Last Modified: 14 Oct 2022 16:30
URI: http://repository-tnmgrmu.ac.in/id/eprint/11830

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