Study of morphology of kidney in hundred specimens

Prabavathi, P (2013) Study of morphology of kidney in hundred specimens. Masters thesis, Madurai Medical College, Madurai.


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INTRODUCTION: The Kidneys are pair of essential excretory organs situated retroperitoneally in the posterior abdominal wall, one on each side of the vertebral column. They remove waste products of metabolism and excess of water and salts from the blood and maintain its pH. Each kidney is bean shaped and extends from twelfth thoracic to third lumbar vertebrae. Right kidney is slightly lower than its left partner due to the presence of liver. Left kidney is longer, narrower and nearer to the vertebral column than the right one. Each kidney has 2 poles (upper and lower) 2 borders (medial and lateral) and 2 surfaces (anterior and posterior). The upper pole is broad and is in close contact with the corresponding suprarenal gland. The lower pole is pointed. The medial border presents the hilum in its middle. The hilum admits the passage of renal vessels and renal pelvis. The knowledge of the kidney dimensions is essential to understand the normal renal function and disease pattern If any pathological condition affecting the kidney will lead to alteration in the dimensions of the kidney and hence its functions. Kidney anatomy is unique which allows it to perform many complex functions. The dimensions are used as diagnostic as well as prognostic parameter in renal pathology. Precise knowledge of renal morphology along with renal hilar structure arrangements and its variations are very much essential for renal transplantation surgeries and in uro-radiology. Prior knowledge of kidney dimensions would be of immense help to radiologists who scan the kidney. Morphology of kidney varies in different population depending on the ethinic background and the Body Mass Index. This present study highlights about the morphology of kidney in our population. AIM OF THE STUDY: To analyse the morphology of kidney in relation to the length, breadth, thickness, hilar structures arrangement and its variations in hundred human kidneys. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MATERIALS: The following materials were used, 100 human kidney specimens, Stainless steel students scalpel, Stainless steel forceps toothed and non toothed, Stainless steel long and short straight scissors, Thread, Cotton, Rubber sheet, Digital vernier caliper: The length, breadth and thickness of the kidney were measured with the help of a Digital Vernier caliper (Fig – 1). Canon digital camera, 10% formalin. METHOD OF STUDY: The study was conducted in the Institute of Anatomy, Madurai Medical College, Madurai. The 100 human kidney specimens (50 specimens on right side and 50 specimens on left side) (Fig -2) for the present study were collected from the Forensic medicine department, Madurai medical college. The specimens were obtained irrespective of any age, sex, socio-economic status and pathological bias. CONCLUSION: Hundred human kidneys were studied and analysed morphologically. The salient data’s of the study were the following: The average length of the kidney was 9.46 cm. The average length of the right kidney was 9.4cm. The average length of the left kidney was 9.5cm. Length of the kidney ranges from 7 cm to 11.4 cm. Average Breadth of the kidney was 5.09 cm. The average breadth of the right and left kidney were 5.0 cm and 5.1cm respectively. The breadth of the kidney ranges from 4.0 cm to 6.3 cm. Average thickness of kidney was 3.26cm. The average thickness of the right and left kidney were 3.2cm and 3.3cm respectively. The thickness of the kidney ranges from 2.1 cm to 5.0 cm. 66% of specimens were showed the variant hilar structure arrangements. The most common pattern of hilar structures arrangement was pattern I being renal vein - renal artery - renal pelvis which was observed in 34% of specimens. 35% of variant pattern were noted on left side. In 32% of specimens, anterior division of the renal artery was the most anteriorly placed structure at renal hilum. 46% of the specimens, retro pelvic structures were observed at the hilum. 19% of specimens showed Persistence of Foetal lobulations. Simple Renal cysts were present in 11% of the specimens. 7% of specimens showed the Extrarenal pelvis and 3% of specimens showed the Extrarenal calyces. 37% specimens were found to have the variations of the kidney. The knowledge of the average renal parameters, various patterns of hilar structures arrangement and the morphological variations will be of immense help to the nephrologists, surgeons and radiologists. End stage renal diseases and chronic kidney failure are accounts for major cause of deaths. Various studies reveal that 1 in 10 adults suffer from kidney problems. The morphology of kidney will be a valuable contribution to all medical personnel to identify the pathological changes. Emphasis on the variations in the patterns of the hilar structures and the rare variations of the extra renal calyces are essential for the surgeons performing pyelostomy and renal transplantation. Though Contrast radiography, Ultrasonography, Magnetic resonance imaging technique are advances in the investigatory methods to study the renal morphology in living. A cadaveric study is still a valuable method to study the morphology of kidney.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: morphology, kidney, hundred specimens.
Subjects: MEDICAL > Anatomy
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 05 Oct 2019 11:47
Last Modified: 05 Oct 2019 11:47

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