Study of morphology of placenta in fifty specimens

Muthu Prasad, P (2012) Study of morphology of placenta in fifty specimens. Masters thesis, Madurai Medical College, Madurai.


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INTRODUCTION: Placenta has characteristic of eutherian or placental mammals. The word placenta comes from the Latin for cake, from greek “Plakoenta / plakounta, accusative of plakoeis/ plakous, flat, slab –like in referenceto its round, flat appearance in humans. The human placenta is a villous haemochorial structure which is of critical importance in maternal – fetal transfer, has a complex synthetic capacity and plays a fundamental role in the immunological acceptance of the fetal allograft. The placental complex formed by the combined effort between the extra embryonic tissue of the embryo and the endometrial tissue of the mother, represents symbiosis between the two separate beings without rejection. The formation of placenta is a biological event which is important both embryological and immunologically. The placenta serves the most basic metabolic needs of fetus including respiration, nourishment and excretion by acting as temporary lung, liver and kidney. It forms an organ for the interchange of material between fetal and maternal blood streams without mixing or physical contact of two blood streams. The important tasks like hormone synthesis, protein synthesis, immunological role and production of endocrine secretion are carried out by placenta. Placenta sub serves these purposes until sufficient maturation of the fetus which enables it to survive in the extra uterine environment. The growth of the fetus depends upon the functional capacity, location and integrity of the placental attachment. The placenta is analogous to organs like liver, lung and kidney in function but not homologues with them in structure. AIM OF THE STUDY: To study the morphology of placenta in fifty placental specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study was conducted in the Institute of Anatomy, Madurai Medical College in collaboration with Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. A total of fifty placental specimens were collected and analyzed for shape, diameter, and thickness, weight of placenta, maternal and fetal cotyledons, and attachment of cord, vascular pattern, feto-placental ratio and placental co-efficient. RESULTS: In fifty placentae, 60% circular in shape; 38% oval in shape; 2% triangularin shape. The mean Diameter is 17.7 cm. The diameter is increased in Anaemia and decreased in Prematurity. The average thickness is 1.993 cm. The thickness is increased in Diabetes mellitus and decreased in Anaemia. The average number of maternal cotyledons is 17; increased in Diatebes mellitus and decreased in Prematurity. The average number of fetal cotyledons is 59 and increased in Diabetes mellitus. The feto-maternal cotyledon ratio is 3.5:1. It is increased in prematurity and decreased in Diabetes mellitus. The average weight of the placenta is 471 grams. The placental weight is increased in Diabetes mellitus and decreased in Prematurity. The feto-placental weight ratio is 5.805 and is decreased in Prematurity. The placental co-efficient is 0.18 and is increased in Prematurity. CONCLUSION: The morphology of the placenta varies with the clinical conditions associated with the pregnancies. The examination of the placenta yields valuable information regarding the intra-uterine events and fetal outcome. Thus the above study will be useful for the clinicians and anatomists who are doing further research in this field.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: morphology, placenta, fifty specimens.
Subjects: MEDICAL > Anatomy
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 05 Oct 2019 10:41
Last Modified: 05 Oct 2019 10:41

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