Relationship between Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency and Low Birth Weight Neonates

Aishwarya, V (2019) Relationship between Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency and Low Birth Weight Neonates. Masters thesis, Madras Medical College, Chennai.

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Despite discovery of vitamin D a hundred years ago, it has been recently emerged as one of the most controversial Nutrients and prohormones of 21st century. It is found to play a major role in calcium metabolism and bone health. Normal vitamin D level is also very much needed for prevention of type 2 diabetes, Gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, cancer, preterm birth and low birth weight. Vitamin D has recently been found to promote insulin action, immunomodulation and lung function. Thus it is found to play a very important role in development of foetus. Maternal hypocalcemia may lead to development of preeclampsia and neonatal hypocalcemia, which in turn is determined by maternal vitamin D levels. There are several studies to depict the association between vitamin D levels during pregnancy and its outcome. OBJECTIVES: 1. To find out the Relationship between Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency and Low Birth Weight Neonates. 2. To explore the role of Antenatal Vitamin D intake in prevention of Low Birth weight babies. Low birth weight (LBW) refers to term or preterm neonates with birth weight < 2500 gr. These neonates may be small for gestational age or have intrauterine growth restriction. Mortality rate in such neonates is 40 times more than those with normal weight. Some investigations highlighted the effect of micronutrients on birth weight. Vitamin D (vit D) has a key role in fetal growth by its interaction with parathyroid hormone and Ca2 + homeostasis. Studies confirmed that insufficient prenatal and postnatal levels of Vitamin D have great effects on poor bone mineralization which have significant association with small for gestation age (SGA). SGA births are reported more frequent in pregnancies occurring in the winter with Vitamin D deficiency. High prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency (about a billion) has been seen among people all over the world. In this study we are intended to compare the maternal vitamin D status between LBW and normal birth weight neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is an observational case control study involving 100 delivered women divided into two equal groups one with women with babies with weight less than 2500 gm and another group with women with babies with weight more than 2500 gm. SAMPLE COLLECTION: Maternal vitamin D level was measured immediately two hours after birth by collecting 5ml of blood and determined by 25 OH vitamin D enzyme immunoassay method. CONCLUSION: My study showed a significant correlation between maternal vitamin D deficiency and low birth weight baby. This study also showed the influence of other variable like age, parity, complexion, pre pregnancy BMI, BMI at time of delivery, previous h/o low birth weight baby, diet and haemoglobin. Thus vitamin D deficiency was found to be associated with increasing age, increasing parity, dark complexion, increasing BMI and vegetarian diet.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Vitamin D, Low Birth Weight, < 2500 GM, Parity, Pre Pregnancy BMI, Complexion, Mode of Delivery, Haemoglobin, Diet, Previous H/O Low Birth Weight Baby.
Subjects: MEDICAL > Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 28 Aug 2019 17:50
Last Modified: 28 Aug 2019 17:50
URI: http://repository-tnmgrmu.ac.in/id/eprint/11317

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