Assessment of Proteinuria by Urine Spot Protein Creatinine Ratio for Risk Prediction of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome in Dengue Infections

Dinesh, R (2019) Assessment of Proteinuria by Urine Spot Protein Creatinine Ratio for Risk Prediction of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome in Dengue Infections. Masters thesis, Madurai Medical College, Madurai.

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Dengue fever is caused by flavi virus and is spread by aedes mosquito mostly aedes aegypti. It has a mean incubation period of 2-5 days and has been seen to occur as seasonal outbreaks. Dengue fever can occur with varied spectrum of presentations. From the inconspicuous viral fever syndrome to the fatal dengue shock syndrome/dengue haemorrhagic fever. There is a need for a simple predictive marker for patients at risk of progressing. Various metabolic abnormalities have been found in dengue patients, namely, elevated liver enzymes, low sodium and ionised calcium levels, hyponatremia, increased urinary protein levels. Proteinuria has been used as a method for assessing severity of dengue .proteinuria is best measured by 24 hrs urinary protein but it is a cumbersome procedure. Various texts show that urine spot PCR as an acceptable alternative. Normal urine spot PCR is less than 30mg/mmol. CASE DEFINTION: Severe dengue is defined as those with Severe plasma leakage leading to: • Shock (DSS). • Fluid accumulation with respiratory distress. Severe bleeding as evaluated by clinician. Severe organ involvement. • Liver: AST or ALT > = 1000. • CNS: Impaired consciousness. • Heart and other organs. WHO guidelines 1997 defines dengue hemorrhagic fever as those with. • positive tourniquet test, petechiae, ecchymoses or purpura, bleeding from injection sites or other locations, malena or hematemesis, • thrombocytopenia < 1,00,000/mm3. • Plasma leakage as evidenced by increase in hematocrit 20% from baseline, decrease in hematocrit > 20% after volume replacement, pleural effusion, ascites and hypoproteinemia. Dengue shock syndrome is defined by Patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever with tachycardia. Pulse pressure < 20mmhg, hypotension for age, cold skin, restlessness. A laboratory criterion for confirmation is usually done by detection of IgM antibody. Vasanwala et al showed a positive correlation with dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: • To study daily urine spot protein creatinine Ratio in dengue fever patients. • To use it to predict patients at risk for developing complications. • To calculate its sensitivity and specificity as a prognostic tool. MATERIALS AND METHODS STUDY POPULATION: SOURCE OF DATA: The study will be conducted on 100 adult dengue fever patients admitted in medicine wards of Government Rajaji Hospital & Madurai Medical College during the study period from march 2018 to August 2018. INCLUSION CRITERIA: • Patients admitted for fever with thrombocytopenia. • IgM dengue ELISA positive. • Normal serum urea/creatinine at presentation. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: • Pre existing Chronic Kidney Disease/nephrotic/nephritic syndrome. • Diabetes. • Hypertensives. • Coronary Artery Disease. • Female patients during menstrual cycle. • Urinary tract infections. RESULTS: Of the total 100 patients, those of age less than 20 constituted were 10, between 20-40 yrs were 51 and more than 40 were 39. Among the subjects the total number of men were more accounting 60 and female were 40. Among the total 100 patients 24 had urine Spot PCR more than 560 mg/g and 76 had urine spot PCR less 560 mg/g. Among the < 20 yrs age group there was 40% incidence of DHF, among the 20-40 yrs group incidence was 13% and among the > 40 yrs group it was 20.5%. On seeing the age related incidence of DSS in < 20 yrs age group it was 50%, in 20-40yrs age group 11.7% and among the > 40 yrs group it was 25.6%. In the sex related distribution DHF occurred in 10 men and 19 women. The incidence was 16.6% among men and 21.9% among women. Among the 24 patients with proteinuria more than 560 mg/g 15 went for DHF and 8 did not have DHF. Among the 24 patients with proteinuria more than 560 mg/g 13 patients went for DSS. In patients with proteinuria > 560 mg/g 21 patients went for DHF/DSS and only three had no progression. Among those with proteinuria less than 560 mg/g only 8 went for DHF/DSS of the total 76.In our study urine spot PCR > 560 mg/g had a specificity of about 95 %. And a sensitivity of 72.4%. The test also had a positive predictive value of 87.5 % and a negative predictive value of 89.4%. CONCLUSION: There is a need to risk stratify patients with dengue fever, Particularly during the periods of epidemics. The fall in platelet count can predict only to some extent the occurrence of DHF. Urine proteinuria can be used as an additional factor to predict the risk of both DHF and DSS. The peak of urine proteinuria occurs around the day of defervesence. Therefore urine spot PCR can be used as a specific marker for prediction of dengue hemorrhagic fever and Dengue shock syndrome. So patients with higher spot PCR need to shifted to facility with more intensive monitoring than others. The use of urine spot PCR is not recommened as the sensivity of the test based on our study results were low. The test also has a high positive predictive value and also a high predictive value. The dengue algorithm using various clinical biochemical parameters may also be used for predicting the complications. KEY WORDS: Dengue, viralfever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, dengue shock syndrome, proteinuria, urine Spot PCR, complications.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Subjects: MEDICAL > General Medicine
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 27 Aug 2019 03:38
Last Modified: 29 Aug 2019 13:24
URI: http://repository-tnmgrmu.ac.in/id/eprint/11255

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