Clinico Epidemiological Profile of Dermatological Manifestations in Preschool going Children in a Tertiary Health Care Centre

Siddhant Sunil Mahajan, (2019) Clinico Epidemiological Profile of Dermatological Manifestations in Preschool going Children in a Tertiary Health Care Centre. Masters thesis, Sree Mookambika Institute of Medical Sciences, Kulasekharam.


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BACKGROUND: Dermatological manifestations during the childhood period include a variety of infectious and non infectious diseases. There is variation in the pattern of dermatoses, with eczemas being the most common skin disorder in developed countries and infections and infestations in the developing countries. In order to monitor the pattern of skin problems in the children and to understand the relationship epidemiologic data is a necessary. The pattern of all diseases in paediatric age group vary from one country to another and within the same country from one state to another due to various climatic, cultural and socio-economic factors. The infants are mostly confined to their household, while preschool children aged one to five years are exposed to their neighborhood. A quantity of kids who are admitted to the kinder garden school will have transformed pattern of dermatosis, so it can be said that the period of childhood is also one of the surrogate marker for environmental risks. Skin manifestations are more common in children than adults. There exist a very limited studies that have been done in South Tamil Nadu, in which the preschool children have been evaluated for skin disorders. The State of Tamilnadu, especially the area around this medical college has a huge number of children that belong to the pre - school age group. In view of all this we at the medical college decided to study that was titled as “Clinico-epidemiological profile of dermatological manifestations in preschool going children in a tertiary health care centre” with the aim to learn the clinical and the epidemiological pattern of skin manifestations in preschool going children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a cross sectional study that was done at the Dermatology Venereology and Leprosy Department and Paediatrics Department at the Sree Mookambika Institute of Medical Sciences, Kulasekharam for a time duration of 18 months between the months January 2017 – May 2018 on 143 children who were in the preschool age group who served as a single group. The patients were chosen based on a pre - defined criteria. The study was started after the institutions ethical clearance committee gave ethical clearance to the study. Those who met the criteria were chosen and their legal guardian who accompanied them were given a through information regarding the study and the data that was to be collected. Those cases whose patient parents/guardians were willing to give the informed consent to participate in the study and the data to be collected were enrolled in the study. RESULTS AND OBSERVATIONS: We studied 82 males and 61 females. In all the age groups males dominated females. Male to female ratio was 1.34: 1. Genitalia was the most commonly involved site in 25 cases accounting for 17.48% followed by face in 24 cases accounting for 16.76 %, then comes the trunk in 13 cases accounting for 9.1 %. In the socioeconomic status (KSES) distribution we found that lower middle class accounted for most of the cases 61 (42.65%), followed by Upper lower class with 48 cases accounting for 33.56 % of the study . Rural patients comprised 99 cases (69.2%) and the Urban patients comprised 44 cases (30.8%). Acquired inflammatory skin conditions were highest in account with 58 cases in which diaper rash and Pityriasis alba were seen maximum with 13 cases each (9 percent). This conditions present maximum in 3rd year of age with 19 cases (13.28%) The total bacterial infections were seen 27 cases (18.88 percent), on evaluation of the type of infection 17 cases (11.88) were impetigo, 3 years had the maximum infections 10 cases (6.99 percent). Total fungal infections were seen in 23 cases (16.08 %), on evaluating the type of infections 12 cases (8.4 %) were candidal intertrigo, 3 and 4 years of age had the maximum number of cases with 7 cases and 5 cases respectively. Total parasitic infections were 5 cases (3.49%), on evaluation of the type of infections all 5 cases were of scabies, 4 years had the maximum infestation by scabies i.e. 3 cases (2.1%). Physiological skin disorders were exclusively seen in less than a year of age, with maximum being erythema toxicum neonatorum which is seen in 2 cases (3.5 %). Among developmental skin disorders, 3 cases (2.09%) of congenital melanocytic nevus, 3 cases (2.09%) of nevus depigmentosus, 1 case (0.69%) of infantile hemangioma,1 case (0.69%) of icthyosis were present. CONCLUSION: In the present study the following conclusions were observed: Physiological and developmental skin disorders were more common in newborns and infants and these are transient, self -limiting and do not require any form of treatment. According to Kuppuswamy’s classification of SES the skin diseases were more common in low socioeconomic status. Hence measures can be taken for overall improvement of education, job opportunities and socioeconomic status in rural areas so that there can be an improvement in the per capita income.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Clinico Epidemiological Profile, Dermatological Manifestations, Preschool going Children, Tertiary Health Care Centre.
Subjects: MEDICAL > Dermatology Venereology and Leprosy
Depositing User: Subramani R
Date Deposited: 19 Aug 2019 00:59
Last Modified: 19 Aug 2019 00:59

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